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popup.txt  For Vim version 8.1.  Last change: 2019 Jun 15

                  VIM REFERENCE MANUAL    by Bram Moolenaar

Displaying text in floating window.                     popup popup-window


1. Introduction                 popup-intro
2. Functions                    popup-functions
3. Examples                     popup-examples

{not available if the |+textprop| feature was disabled at compile time}

1. Introduction                                         popup-intro

We are talking about popup windows here, text that goes on top of the regular
windows and is under control of a plugin.  You cannot edit the text in the
popup window like with regular windows.

A popup window can be used for such things as:
- briefly show a message without overwriting the command line
- prompt the user with a dialog
- display contextual information while typing
- give extra information for auto-completion

The text in the popup window can be colored with text-properties.  It is
also possible to use syntax highlighting.

The default color used is "Pmenu".  If you prefer something else use the
"highlight" argument or the 'wincolor' option, e.g.: 
        hi MyPopupColor ctermbg=lightblue guibg=lightblue
        call setwinvar(winid, '&wincolor', 'MyPopupColor')

'hlsearch' highlighting is not displayed in a popup window.

A popup window has a window-ID like other windows, but behaves differently.
The size can be up to the whole Vim window and it overlaps other windows.
Popup windows can also overlap each other.  The "zindex" property specifies
what goes on top of what.

The popup window contains a buffer, and that buffer is always associated with
the popup window.  The window cannot be in Normal, Visual or Insert mode, it
does not get keyboard focus.  You can use functions like setbufline() to
change the text in the buffer.  There are more differences from how this
window and buffer behave compared to regular windows and buffers, see

If this is not what you are looking for, check out other popup functionality:
- popup menu, see popup-menu
- balloon, see balloon-eval

WINDOW POSITION AND SIZE                        popup-position

The height of the window is normally equal to the number of, possibly
wrapping, lines in the buffer.  It can be limited with the "maxheight"
property.  You can use empty lines to increase the height or the "minheight"

The width of the window is normally equal to the longest line in the buffer.
It can be limited with the "maxwidth" property.  You can use spaces to
increase the width or use the "minwidth" property.

By default the 'wrap' option is set, so that no text disappears.  Otherwise,
if there is not enough space then the window is shifted left in order to
display more text. This can be disabled with the "fixed" property. Also
disabled when right-aligned.

Vim tries to show the popup in the location you specify.  In some cases, e.g.
when the popup would go outside of the Vim window, it will show it somewhere
else.  E.g. if you use popup_atcursor() the popup normally shows just above
the current cursor position, but if the cursor is close to the top of the Vim
window it will be placed below the cursor position.

When the screen scrolls up for output of an Ex command, popups move too, so
that they will not cover the output.

The current cursor position is displayed even when it is under a popup window.
That way you can still see where it is, even though you cannot see the text
that it is in.

- Why does 'nrformats' leak from the popup window buffer???
- When the lines do not fit show a scrollbar (like in the popup menu).
  Use the mouse wheel for scrolling.
- Disable commands, feedkeys(), CTRL-W, etc. in a popup window.
  Use ERROR_IF_POPUP_WINDOW for more commands.
- Add 'balloonpopup': instead of showing text, let the callback open a popup
  window and return the window ID.   The popup will then be closed when the
  mouse moves, except when it moves inside the popup.
- For the "moved" property also include mouse movement?
- Can the buffer be re-used, to avoid using up lots of buffer numbers?
- Have an option to attach the popup to a text position, like text properties
  do. (#4560)
- Make redrawing more efficient and avoid flicker:
    - put popup menu also put in popup_mask?
- Invoke filter with character before mapping?
- Figure out the size and position better.
    if wrapping splits a double-wide character
    if wrapping inserts indent
- When drawing on top half a double-wide character, display ">" or "<" in the
  incomplete cell.
- Use a popup window for the "info" item of completion instead of using a
  preview window.  Ideas in issue #4544.
  How to add highlighting?
- Implement:
        flip option
        transparent area, to minimize covering text.  Define rectangles?

2. Functions                                            popup-functions


Creating a popup window:
        popup_create()        centered in the screen
        popup_atcursor()      just above the cursor position, closes when
                                the cursor moves away
        popup_notification()  show a notification for three seconds
        popup_dialog()        centered with padding and border
        popup_menu()          prompt for selecting an item from a list

Manipulating a popup window:
        popup_hide()          hide a popup temporarily
        popup_show()          show a previously hidden popup
        popup_move()          change the position and size of a popup
        popup_setoptions()    override options of a popup
        popup_settext()       replace the popup buffer contents

Closing popup windows:
        popup_close()         close one popup
        popup_clear()         close all popups

Filter functions:
        popup_filter_menu()   select from a list of items
        popup_filter_yesno()  blocks until 'y' or 'n' is pressed

        popup_getoptions()    get current options for a popup
        popup_getpos()        get actual position and size of a popup

[functions help to be moved to eval.txt later]

popup_atcursor({text}, {options})                        popup_atcursor()
                Show the {text} above the cursor, and close it when the cursor
                moves.  This works like: 
                        call popup_create({text}, {
                                \ 'pos': 'botleft',
                                \ 'line': 'cursor-1',
                                \ 'col': 'cursor',
                                \ 'moved': 'WORD',
                                \ })
               Use {options} to change the properties.

popup_clear()   Emergency solution to a misbehaving plugin: close all popup
                windows for the current tab and global popups.

popup_close({id} [, {result}])                          popup_close()
                Close popup {id}.  The window and the associated buffer will
                be deleted.

                If the popup has a callback it will be called just before the
                popup window is deleted.  If the optional {result} is present
                it will be passed as the second argument of the callback.
                Otherwise zero is passed to the callback.

popup_create({text}, {options})                         popup_create()
                Open a popup window showing {text}, which is either:
                - a string
                - a list of strings
                - a list of text lines with text properties

                {options} is a dictionary with many possible entries.
                See popup_create-usage for details.

                Returns a window-ID, which can be used with other popup
                functions.  Use winbufnr() to get the number of the buffer
                in the window: 
                        let winid = popup_create('hello', {})
                        let bufnr = winbufnr(winid)
                        call setbufline(bufnr, 2, 'second line')
               In case of failure zero is returned.

popup_dialog({text}, {options})                         popup_dialog()
                Just like popup_create() but with these default options: 
                        call popup_create({text}, {
                                \ 'pos': 'center',
                                \ 'zindex': 200,
                                \ 'drag': 1,
                                \ 'border': [],
                                \ 'padding': [],
               Use {options} to change the properties. E.g. add a 'filter'
                option with value 'popup_filter_yesno'.  Example: 
                        call popup_create('do you want to quit (Yes/no)?', {
                                \ 'filter': 'popup_filter_yesno',
                                \ 'callback': 'QuitCallback',
                                \ })

               By default the dialog can be dragged, so that text below it
                can be read if needed.

popup_filter_menu({id}, {key})                          popup_filter_menu()
                Filter that can be used for a popup. These keys can be used:
                    j <Down>            select item below
                    k <Up>              select item above
                    <Space> <Enter>     accept current selection
                    x Esc CTRL-C        cancel the menu
                Other keys are ignored.

                A match is set on that line to highlight it, see

                When the current selection is accepted the "callback" of the
                popup menu is invoked with the index of the selected line as
                the second argument.  The first entry has index one.
                Cancelling the menu invokes the callback with -1.

                To add shortcut keys, see the example here:

popup_filter_yesno({id}, {key})                         popup_filter_yesno()
                Filter that can be used for a popup. It handles only the keys
                'y', 'Y' and 'n' or 'N'.  Invokes the "callback" of the
                popup menu with the 1 for 'y' or 'Y' and zero for 'n' or 'N'
                as the second argument.  Pressing Esc and 'x' works like
                pressing 'n'.  CTRL-C invokes the callback with -1.  Other
                keys are ignored.
                See the example here: popup_dialog-example

popup_getoptions({id})                                  popup_getoptions()
                Return the {options} for popup {id} in a Dict.
                A zero value means the option was not set.  For "zindex" the
                default value is returned, not zero.

                The "moved" entry is a list with minimum and maximum column,
                [0, 0] when not set.

                "border" and "padding" are not included when all values are
                zero.  When all values are one then an empty list is included.

                "borderhighlight" is not included when all values are empty.

                "tabpage" will be -1 for a global popup, zero for a popup on
                the current tabpage and a positive number for a popup on
                another tabpage.

                If popup window {id} is not found an empty Dict is returned.

popup_getpos({id})                                      popup_getpos()
                Return the position and size of popup {id}.  Returns a Dict
                with these entries:
                    col         screen column of the popup, one-based
                    line        screen line of the popup, one-based
                    width       width of the whole popup in screen cells
                    height      height of the whole popup in screen cells
                    core_col    screen column of the text box
                    core_line   screen line of the text box
                    core_width  width of the text box in screen cells
                    core_height height of the text box in screen cells
                    visible     one if the popup is displayed, zero if hidden
                Note that these are the actual screen positions.  They differ
                from the values in popup_getoptions() for the sizing and
                positioning mechanism applied.

                The "core_" values exclude the padding and border.

                If popup window {id} is not found an empty Dict is returned.

popup_hide({id})                                                popup_hide()
                If {id} is a displayed popup, hide it now. If the popup has a
                filter it will not be invoked for so long as the popup is
                If window {id} does not exist nothing happens.  If window {id}
                exists but is not a popup window an error is given. E993

popup_menu({text}, {options})                            popup_menu()
                Show the {text} near the cursor, handle selecting one of the
                items with cursorkeys, and close it an item is selected with
                Space or Enter. {text} should have multiple lines to make this
                useful.  This works like: 
                        call popup_create({text}, {
                                \ 'pos': 'center',
                                \ 'zindex': 200,
                                \ 'drag': 1,
                                \ 'wrap': 0,
                                \ 'border': [],
                                \ 'padding': [],
                                \ 'filter': 'popup_filter_menu',
                                \ })
               The current line is highlighted with a match using
                PopupSelected, or PmenuSel if that is not defined.

                Use {options} to change the properties.  Should at least set
                "callback" to a function that handles the selected item.

popup_move({id}, {options})                                     popup_move()
                Move popup {id} to the position specified with {options}.
                {options} may contain the items from popup_create() that
                specify the popup position:
                For {id} see popup_hide().
                For other options see popup_setoptions().

popup_notification({text}, {options})                    popup_notification()
                Show the {text} for 3 seconds at the top of the Vim window.
                This works like: 
                        call popup_create({text}, {
                                \ 'line': 1,
                                \ 'col': 10,
                                \ 'minwidth': 20,
                                \ 'time': 3000,
                                \ 'tabpage': -1,
                                \ 'zindex': 300,
                                \ 'drag': 1,
                                \ 'highlight': 'WarningMsg',
                                \ 'border': [],
                                \ 'padding': [0,1,0,1],
                                \ })
               The PopupNotification highlight group is used instead of
                WarningMsg if it is defined.

                The position will be adjusted to avoid overlap with other
                Use {options} to change the properties.

popup_show({id})                                                popup_show()
                If {id} is a hidden popup, show it now.
                For {id} see popup_hide().

popup_setoptions({id}, {options})                       popup_setoptions()
                Override options in popup {id} with entries in {options}.
                These options can be set:
                The options from popup_move() can also be used.
                For "hidden" use popup_hide() and popup_show().
                "tabpage" cannot be changed.

popup_settext({id}, {text})                             popup_settext()
                Set the text of the buffer in poup win {id}. {text} is the
                same as supplied to popup_create().
                Does not change the window size or position, other than caused
                by the different text.

POPUP BUFFER AND WINDOW                                 popup-buffer

A new buffer is created to hold the text and text properties of the popup
window.  The buffer is always associated with the popup window and
manipulation is restricted:
- the buffer has no name
- 'buftype' is "popup"
- 'swapfile' is off
- 'bufhidden' is "hide"
- 'buflisted' is off
- 'undolevels' is -1: no undo at all
- all other buffer-local and window-local options are set to their Vim default

It is possible to change the specifically mentioned options, but anything
might break then, so better leave them alone.

The window does have a cursor position, but the cursor is not displayed.

To execute a command in the context of the popup window and buffer use
win_execute().  Example: 
        call win_execute(winid, 'syntax enable')

Options can be set on the window with setwinvar(), e.g.: 
        call setwinvar(winid, '&wrap', 0)
And options can be set on the buffer with setbufvar(), e.g.: 
        call setbufvar(winbufnr(winid), '&filetype', 'java')
Note that this does not trigger autocommands.  Use win_execute() if you do
need them.

POPUP_CREATE() ARGUMENTS                                popup_create-usage

The first argument of popup_create() (and the second argument to
popup_setttext()) specifies the text to be displayed, and optionally text
properties.  It is in one of three forms:
- a string
- a list of strings
- a list of dictionaries, where each dictionary has these entries:
        text            String with the text to display.
        props           A list of text properties.  Optional.
                        Each entry is a dictionary, like the third argument of
                        prop_add(), but specifying the column in the
                        dictionary with a "col" entry, see below:

The second argument of popup_create() is a dictionary with options:
        line            Screen line where to position the popup.  Can use a
                        number or "cursor", "cursor+1" or "cursor-1" to use
                        the line of the cursor and add or subtract a number of
                        lines.  If omitted the popup is vertically centered.
                        The first line is 1.
        col             Screen column where to position the popup.  Can use a
                        number or "cursor" to use the column of the cursor,
                        "cursor+9" or "cursor-9" to add or subtract a number
                        of columns.  If omitted the popup is horizontally
                        centered.  The first column is 1.
        pos             "topleft", "topright", "botleft" or "botright":
                        defines what corner of the popup "line" and "col" are
                        used for.  When not set "topleft" is used.
                        Alternatively "center" can be used to position the
                        popup in the center of the Vim window, in which case
                        "line" and "col" are ignored.
        fixed           When FALSE (the default), and:
                         - "pos" is "botleft" or "topleft", and
                         - "wrap" is off, and
                         - the popup would be truncated at the right edge of
                           the screen, then
                        the popup is moved to the left so as to fit the
                        contents on the screen.  Set to TRUE to disable this.
        flip            When TRUE (the default) and the position is relative
                        to the cursor, flip to below or above the cursor to
                        avoid overlap with the popupmenu-completion or
                        another popup with a higher "zindex".  When there is
                        no space above/below the cursor then show the popup to
                        the side of the popup or popup menu.
                        {not implemented yet}
        maxheight       Maximum height of the contents, excluding border and
        minheight       Minimum height of the contents, excluding border and
        maxwidth        Maximum width of the contents, excluding border and
        minwidth        Minimum width of the contents, excluding border and
        firstline       First buffer line to display.  When larger than one it
                        looks like the text scrolled up.  When out of range
                        the last buffer line will at the top of the window.
        hidden          When TRUE the popup exists but is not displayed; use
                        popup_show() to unhide it.
                        {not implemented yet}
        tabpage         When -1: display the popup on all tabs.
                        When 0 (the default): display the popup on the current
                        tab page.
                        Otherwise the number of the tab page the popup is
                        displayed on; when invalid the popup is not created
                        and an error is given. E996
        title           Text to be displayed above the first item in the
                        popup, on top of any border.  If there is no top
                        border one line of padding is added to put the title
                        on.  You might want to add one or more spaces at the
                        start and end as padding.
        wrap            TRUE to make the lines wrap (default TRUE).
        drag            TRUE to allow the popup to be dragged with the mouse
                        by grabbing at at the border.  Has no effect if the
                        popup does not have a border. As soon as dragging
                        starts and "pos" is "center" it is changed to
        highlight       Highlight group name to use for the text, stored in
                        the 'wincolor' option.
        padding         List with numbers, defining the padding
                        above/right/below/left of the popup (similar to CSS).
                        An empty list uses a padding of 1 all around.  The
                        padding goes around the text, inside any border.
                        Padding uses the 'wincolor' highlight.
                        Example: [1, 2, 1, 3] has 1 line of padding above, 2
                        columns on the right, 1 line below and 3 columns on
                        the left.
        border          List with numbers, defining the border thickness
                        above/right/below/left of the popup (similar to CSS).
                        Only values of zero and non-zero are recognized.
                        An empty list uses a border all around.
        borderhighlight List of highlight group names to use for the border.
                        When one entry it is used for all borders, otherwise
                        the highlight for the top/right/bottom/left border.
                        Example: ['TopColor', 'RightColor', 'BottomColor,
        borderchars     List with characters, defining the character to use
                        for the top/right/bottom/left border.  Optionally
                        followed by the character to use for the
                        topleft/topright/botright/botleft corner.
                        Example: ['-', '|', '-', '|', '┌', '┐', '┘', '└']
                        When the list has one character it is used for all.
                        When the list has two characters the first is used for
                        the border lines, the second for the corners.
                        By default a double line is used all around when
                        'encoding' is "utf-8" and 'ambiwidth' is "single,
                        otherwise ASCII characters are used.
        zindex          Priority for the popup, default 50.  Minimum value is
                        1, maximum value is 32000.
        time            Time in milliseconds after which the popup will close.
                        When omitted popup_close() must be used.
        moved           Specifies to close the popup if the cursor moved:
                        - "any": if the cursor moved at all
                        - "word": if the cursor moved outside <cword>
                        - "WORD": if the cursor moved outside <cWORD>
                        - [{start}, {end}]: if the cursor moved before column
                          {start} or after {end}
                        The popup also closes if the cursor moves to another
                        line or to another window.
        filter          A callback that can filter typed characters, see
        callback        A callback that is called when the popup closes, e.g.
                        when using popup_filter_menu(), see popup-callback.

Depending on the "zindex" the popup goes under or above other popups.  The
completion menu (popup-menu) has zindex 100.  For messages that occur for a
short time the suggestion is to use zindex 1000.

By default text wraps, which causes a line in {lines} to occupy more than one
screen line.  When "wrap" is FALSE then the text outside of the popup or
outside of the Vim window will not be displayed, thus truncated.

POPUP TEXT PROPERTIES                                   popup-props

These are similar to the third argument of prop_add() except:
- "lnum" is always the current line in the list
- "bufnr" is always the buffer of the popup
- "col" is in the Dict instead of a separate argument
- "transparent" is extra
So we get:
        col             starting column, counted in bytes, use one for the
                        first column.
        length          length of text in bytes; can be zero
        end_lnum        line number for the end of the text
        end_col         column just after the text; not used when "length" is
                        present; when {col} and "end_col" are equal, this is a
                        zero-width text property
        id              user defined ID for the property; when omitted zero is
        type            name of the text property type, as added with
        transparent     do not show these characters, show the text under it;
                        if there is a border character to the right or below
                        it will be made transparent as well
                        {not implemented yet}

POPUP FILTER                                            popup-filter

A callback that gets any typed keys while a popup is displayed.  The filter is
not invoked when the popup is hidden.

The filter can return TRUE to indicate the key has been handled and is to be
discarded, or FALSE to let Vim handle the key as usual in the current state.
In case it returns FALSE and there is another popup window visible, that
filter is also called.  The filter of the popup window with the highest zindex
is called first.

The filter function is called with two arguments: the ID of the popup and the
key as a string, e.g.: 
        func MyFilter(winid, key)
          if a:key == "\<F2>"
            " do something
            return 1
          if a:key == 'x'
            call popup_close(a:winid)
            return 1
          return 0

Currently the key is what results after any mapping.  This may change...

Some common key actions:
        x               close the popup (see note below)
        cursor keys     select another entry
        Tab             accept current suggestion

A mouse click arrives as <LeftMouse>.  The coordinates are in
v:mouse_popup_col and v:mouse_popup_row.  The top-left screen cell of the
popup is col 1, row 1 (not counting the border).

Vim provides standard filters popup_filter_menu() and

Note that "x" is the normal way to close a popup.  You may want to use Esc,
but since many keys start with an Esc character, there may be a delay before
Vim recognizes the Esc key.  If you do use Esc, it is recommended to set the
'ttimeoutlen' option to 100 and set 'timeout' and/or 'ttimeout'.

POPUP CALLBACK                                          popup-callback

A callback that is invoked when the popup closes.

The callback is invoked with two arguments: the ID of the popup window and the
result, which could be an index in the popup lines, or whatever was passed as
the second argument of popup_close().

If the popup is force-closed, e.g. because the cursor moved or CTRL-C was
pressed, the number -1 is passed to the callback.

3. Examples                                             popup-examples

Prompt the user to press y/Y or n/N: 

        func MyDialogHandler(id, result)
           if a:result
              " ... 'y' or 'Y' was pressed

        call popup_dialog('Continue? y/n', {
                \ 'filter': 'popup_filter_yesno',
                \ 'callback': 'MyDialogHandler',
                \ })

Extend popup_filter_menu() with shortcut keys: 

        call popup_menu('Save', 'Cancel', 'Discard'], {
                \ 'filter': 'MyMenuFilter',
                \ 'callback': 'MyMenuHandler',
                \ })

        func MyMenuFilter(id, key)
          " Handle shortcuts
          if a:key == 'S'
             call popup_close(a:id, 1)
             return 1
          if a:key == 'C'
             call popup_close(a:id, 2)
             return 1
          if a:key == 'D'
             call popup_close(a:id, 3)
             return 1

          " No shortcut, pass to generic filter
          return popup_filter_menu(a:id, a:key)


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