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starting.txt  For Vim version 9.0.  Last change: 2023 May 30


		  VIM REFERENCE MANUAL    by Bram Moolenaar


Starting Vim						starting

1. Vim arguments		vim-arguments
2. Vim on the Amiga		starting-amiga
3. Running eVim			evim-keys
4. Initialization		initialization
5. $VIM and $VIMRUNTIME		$VIM
6. Suspending			suspend
7. Exiting			exiting
8. Saving settings		save-settings
9. Views and Sessions		views-sessions
10. The viminfo file		viminfo-file

==============================================================================
1. Vim arguments					vim-arguments

Most often, Vim is started to edit a single file with the command

	vim filename					-vim

More generally, Vim is started with:

	vim [option | filename] ..

Option arguments and file name arguments can be mixed, and any number of them
can be given.  However, watch out for options that take an argument.

For compatibility with various Vi versions, see	cmdline-arguments.

Exactly one out of the following five items may be used to choose how to
start editing:

							-file ---
filename	One or more file names.  The first one will be the current
		file and read into the buffer.  The cursor will be positioned
		on the first line of the buffer.
		To avoid a file name starting with a '-' being interpreted as
		an option, precede the arglist with "--", e.g.: 
			vim -- -filename
		All arguments after the "--" will be interpreted as file names,
		no other options or "+command" argument can follow.
		For behavior of quotes on MS-Windows, see win32-quotes.

							--
-		This argument can mean two things, depending on whether Ex
		mode is to be used.

		Starting in Normal mode: 
			vim -
			ex -v -
		Start editing a new buffer, which is filled with text
		that is read from stdin.  The commands that would normally be
		read from stdin will now be read from stderr.  Example: 
			find . -name "*.c" -print | vim -

		The buffer will be marked as modified, so that you are
		reminded to save the text when trying to exit.  If you don't
		like that, put this these lines in your vimrc: 
			" Don't set 'modified' when reading from stdin
			au StdinReadPost * set nomodified

		Starting in Ex mode: 
			ex -
			vim -e -
			exim -
			vim -E
		Start editing in silent mode.  See -s-ex.

							-t -tag
-t {tag}	A tag.  "tag" is looked up in the tags file, the associated
		file becomes the current file, and the associated command is
		executed.  Mostly this is used for C programs, in which case
		"tag" often is a function name.  The effect is that the file
		containing that function becomes the current file and the
		cursor is positioned on the start of the function (see
		tags).

							-q -qf
-q [errorfile]	QuickFix mode.  The file with the name [errorfile] is read
		and the first error is displayed.  See quickfix.
		If [errorfile] is not given, the 'errorfile' option is used
		for the file name.  See 'errorfile' for the default value.

(nothing)	Without one of the four items above, Vim will start editing a
		new buffer.  It's empty and doesn't have a file name.


The startup mode can be changed by using another name instead of "vim", which
is equal to giving options:
ex	vim -e	    Start in Ex mode (see Ex-mode).  		    ex
exim	vim -E	    Start in improved Ex mode (see Ex-mode).  	    exim
			(normally not installed)
view	vim -R	    Start in read-only mode (see -R).  		    view
gvim	vim -g	    Start the GUI (see gui).  			    gvim
gex	vim -eg	    Start the GUI in Ex mode.			  gex
gview	vim -Rg	    Start the GUI in read-only mode.		  gview
rvim	vim -Z	    Like "vim", but in restricted mode (see -Z)   rvim
rview	vim -RZ	    Like "view", but in restricted mode.	  rview
rgvim	vim -gZ	    Like "gvim", but in restricted mode.	  rgvim
rgview	vim -RgZ    Like "gview", but in restricted mode.	  rgview
evim    vim -y      Easy Vim: set 'insertmode' (see -y)  	    evim
eview   vim -yR     Like "evim" in read-only mode		  eview
vimdiff vim -d	    Start in diff mode diff-mode
gvimdiff vim -gd    Start in diff mode diff-mode

Additional characters may follow, they are ignored.  For example, you can have
"gvim-8" to start the GUI.  You must have an executable by that name then, of
course.

On Unix, you would normally have one executable called Vim, and links from the
different startup-names to that executable.  If your system does not support
links and you do not want to have several copies of the executable, you could
use an alias instead.  For example: 
	alias view   vim -R
	alias gvim   vim -g

							startup-options
The option arguments may be given in any order.  Single-letter options can be
combined after one dash.  There can be no option arguments after the "--"
argument.

On VMS all option arguments are assumed to be lowercase, unless preceded with
a slash.  Thus "-R" means recovery and "-/R" readonly.

--help							-h --help -?
-?
-h		Give usage (help) message and exit.
		See info-message about capturing the text.

							--version
--version	Print version information and exit.  Same output as for
		:version command.
		See info-message about capturing the text.

							--noplugin
--noplugin	Skip loading plugins.  Resets the 'loadplugins' option.

		Note that the -u argument may also disable loading plugins:
			argument   load: vimrc files  plugins  defaults.vim 
			(nothing)	     yes	yes	  yes
			-u NONE		     no		no	  no
			-u DEFAULTS	     no		no	  yes
			-u NORC		     no		yes	  no
			--noplugin	     yes	no	  yes

--startuptime {fname}					--startuptime
		During startup write timing messages to the file {fname}.
		This can be used to find out where time is spent while loading
		your .vimrc, plugins and opening the first file.
		When {fname} already exists new messages are appended.
		{only available when compiled with the +startuptime
		feature}

							--literal
--literal	Take file names literally, don't expand wildcards.  Not needed
		for Unix, because Vim always takes file names literally (the
		shell expands wildcards).
		Applies to all the names, also the ones that come before this
		argument.

							-+
+[num]		The cursor will be positioned on line "num" for the first
		file being edited.  If "num" is missing, the cursor will be
		positioned on the last line.

							-+/
+/{pat}		The cursor will be positioned on the first line containing
		"pat" in the first file being edited (see pattern for the
		available search patterns).  The search starts at the cursor
		position, which can be the first line or the cursor position
		last used from viminfo. To force a search from the first
		line use "+1 +/pat".

+{command}						-+c -c
-c {command}	{command} will be executed after the first file has been
		read (and after autocommands and modelines for that file have
		been processed).  "command" is interpreted as an Ex command.
		If the "command" contains spaces, it must be enclosed in
		double quotes (this depends on the shell that is used).
		Example: 
			vim  "+set si"  main.c
			vim  "+find stdio.h"
			vim  -c "set ff=dos"  -c wq  mine.mak

		Note: You can use up to 10 "+" or "-c" arguments in a Vim
		command.  They are executed in the order given.  A "-S"
		argument counts as a "-c" argument as well.

--cmd {command}						--cmd
		{command} will be executed before processing any vimrc file.
		Otherwise it acts like -c {command}.  You can use up to 10 of
		these commands, independently from "-c" commands.

							-S
-S {file}	The {file} will be sourced after the first file has been read.
		This is an easy way to do the equivalent of: 
			-c "source {file}"
		It can be mixed with "-c" arguments and repeated like "-c".
		The limit of 10 "-c" arguments applies here as well.
		{file} cannot start with a "-".

		Do not use this for running a script to do some work and exit
		Vim, you won't see error messages.  Use -u instead.

-S		Works like "-S Session.vim".  Only when used as the last
		argument or when another "-" option follows.

							-r
-r		Recovery mode.  Without a file name argument, a list of
		existing swap files is given.  With a file name, a swap file
		is read to recover a crashed editing session.  See
		crash-recovery.

							-L
-L		Same as -r.

							-R
-R		Readonly mode.  The 'readonly' option will be set for all the
		files being edited.  You can still edit the buffer, but will
		be prevented from accidentally overwriting a file.  If you
		forgot that you are in View mode and did make some changes,
		you can overwrite a file by adding an exclamation mark to
		the Ex command, as in ":w!".  The 'readonly' option can be
		reset with ":set noro" (see the options chapter, options).
		Subsequent edits will not be done in readonly mode.  Calling
		the executable "view" has the same effect as the -R argument.
		The 'updatecount' option will be set to 10000, meaning that
		the swap file will not be updated automatically very often.
		See -M for disallowing modifications.

							-m
-m		Modifications not allowed to be written.  The 'write' option
		will be reset, so that writing files is disabled.  However,
		the 'write' option can be set to enable writing again.

							-M
-M		Modifications not allowed.  The 'modifiable' option will be
		reset, so that changes are not allowed.  The 'write' option
		will be reset, so that writing files is disabled.  However,
		the 'modifiable' and 'write' options can be set to enable
		changes and writing.

					-Z restricted-mode E145 E981
-Z		Restricted mode.  All commands that make use of an external
		shell are disabled.  This includes suspending with CTRL-Z,
		":sh", filtering, the system() function, backtick expansion
		and libcall().
		Also disallowed are delete(), rename(), mkdir(), job_start(),
		etc.
		Interfaces, such as Python, Ruby and Lua, are also disabled,
		since they could be used to execute shell commands.  Perl uses
		the Safe module.
		For Unix restricted mode is used when the last part of $SHELL
		is "nologin" or "false".
		Note that the user may still find a loophole to execute a
		shell command, it has only been made difficult.

							-g
-g		Start Vim in GUI mode.  See gui. For the opposite see -v.

							-v
-v		Start Ex in Vi mode.  Only makes a difference when the
		executable is called "ex" or "gvim".  For gvim the GUI is not
		started if possible.

							-e
-e		Start Vim in Ex mode, see Ex-mode.  Only makes a difference
		when the executable is not called "ex".

							-E
-E		Start Vim in improved Ex mode gQ.  Only makes a difference
		when the executable is not called "exim".

							-s-ex
-s		Silent or batch mode.  Only when Vim was started as "ex" or
		when preceded with the "-e" argument.  Otherwise see -s,
		which does take an argument while this use of "-s" doesn't.
		To be used when Vim is used to execute Ex commands from a file
		instead of a terminal.  Switches off most prompts and
		informative messages.  Also warnings and error messages.
		The output of these commands is displayed (to stdout):
			:print
			:list
			:number
			:set      to display option values.
		When 'verbose' is non-zero messages are printed (for
		debugging, to stderr).
		'term' and $TERM are not used.
		If Vim appears to be stuck try typing "qa!<Enter>".  You don't
		get a prompt thus you can't see Vim is waiting for you to type
		something.
		Initializations are skipped (except the ones given with the
		"-u" argument).
		Example: 
			vim -e -s  < thefilter  thefile
		For the opposite, to see errors from the script, execute the
		file with the -u flag: 
			vim -u thefilter thefile

							-b
-b		Binary mode.  File I/O will only recognize <NL> to separate
		lines.  The 'expandtab' option will be reset.  The 'textwidth'
		option is set to 0.  'modeline' is reset.  The 'binary' option
		is set.  This is done after reading the vimrc/exrc files but
		before reading any file in the arglist.  See also
		edit-binary.

							-l
-l		Lisp mode.  Sets the 'lisp' and 'showmatch' options on.

							-A
-A		Arabic mode.  Sets the 'arabic' option on.  {only when
		compiled with the +arabic features (which include
		+rightleft), otherwise Vim gives an error message
		and exits}

							-F
-F		This was used for Farsi mode, which has been removed.
		See farsi.txt.

							-H
-H		Hebrew mode.  Sets the 'hkmap' and 'rightleft' options on.
		{only when compiled with the +rightleft feature, otherwise
		Vim gives an error message and exits}

							-V verbose
-V[N]		Verbose.  Sets the 'verbose' option to [N] (default: 10).
		Messages will be given for each file that is ":source"d and
		for reading or writing a viminfo file.  Can be used to find
		out what is happening upon startup and exit.
		Example: 
			vim -V8 foobar

-V[N]{filename}
		Like -V and set 'verbosefile' to {filename}.  The result is
		that messages are not displayed but written to the file
		{filename}.  {filename} must not start with a digit.
		Example: 
			vim -V20vimlog foobar

--log {filename}					--log
		Start logging and write entries to {filename}.
		This works like calling `ch_logfile({filename}, 'ao')` very
		early during startup.
		{only available with the |+eval| feature}

							-D
-D		Debugging.  Go to debugging mode when executing the first
		command from a script. debug-mode
		{not available when compiled without the |+eval| feature}

							-C
-C		Compatible mode.  Sets the 'compatible' option.  You can use
		this to get 'compatible', even though a .vimrc file exists.
		Keep in mind that the command ":set nocompatible" in some
		plugin or startup script overrules this, so you may end up
		with 'nocompatible' anyway.  To find out, use: 
			:verbose set compatible?
		Several plugins won't work with 'compatible' set.  You may
		want to set it after startup this way: 
			vim "+set cp" filename
		Also see compatible-default.

							-N
-N		Not compatible mode.  Resets the 'compatible' option.  You can
		use this to get 'nocompatible', when there is no .vimrc file
		or when using "-u NONE".
		Also see compatible-default.

							-y easy
-y		Easy mode.  Implied for evim and eview.  Starts with
		'insertmode' set and behaves like a click-and-type editor.
		This sources the script $VIMRUNTIME/evim.vim.  Mappings are
		set up to work like most click-and-type editors, see
		evim-keys.  The GUI is started when available.

							-n
-n		No swap file will be used.  Recovery after a crash will be
		impossible.  Handy if you want to view or edit a file on a
		very slow medium (e.g., a floppy).
		Can also be done with ":set updatecount=0".  You can switch it
		on again by setting the 'updatecount' option to some value,
		e.g., ":set uc=100".
		NOTE: Don't combine -n with -b, making -nb, because that has a
		different meaning: -nb.
		'updatecount' is set to 0 AFTER executing commands from a
		vimrc file, but before the GUI initializations.  Thus it
		overrides a setting for 'updatecount' in a vimrc file, but not
		in a gvimrc file.  See startup.
		When you want to reduce accesses to the disk (e.g., for a
		laptop), don't use "-n", but set 'updatetime' and
		'updatecount' to very big numbers, and type ":preserve" when
		you want to save your work.  This way you keep the possibility
		for crash recovery.

							-o
-o[N]		Open N windows, split horizontally.  If [N] is not given,
		one window is opened for every file given as argument.  If
		there is not enough room, only the first few files get a
		window.  If there are more windows than arguments, the last
		few windows will be editing an empty file.

							-O
-O[N]		Open N windows, split vertically.  Otherwise it's like -o.
		If both the -o and the -O option are given, the last one on
		the command line determines how the windows will be split.

							-p
-p[N]		Open N tab pages.  If [N] is not given, one tab page is opened
		for every file given as argument.  The maximum is set with
		'tabpagemax' pages (default 10).  If there are more tab pages
		than arguments, the last few tab pages will be editing an
		empty file.  Also see tabpage.

							-T
-T {terminal}	Set the terminal type to "terminal".  This influences the
		codes that Vim will send to your terminal.  This is normally
		not needed, because Vim will be able to find out what type
		of terminal you are using.  (See terminal-info.)

							--not-a-term
--not-a-term	Tells Vim that the user knows that the input and/or output is
		not connected to a terminal.  This will avoid the warning and
		the two second delay that would happen.
		Also avoids the "Reading from stdin..." message.
		Also avoids the "N files to edit" message.

--gui-dialog-file {name}				--gui-dialog-file
		When using the GUI, instead of showing a dialog, write the
		title and message of the dialog to file {name}.  The file is
		created or appended to.  Only useful for testing, to avoid
		that the test gets stuck on a dialog that can't be seen.
		Without the GUI the argument is ignored.

							--ttyfail
--ttyfail	When the stdin or stdout is not a terminal (tty) then exit
		right away.

							-d
-d		Start in diff mode, like vimdiff.
		{not available when compiled without the |+diff| feature}

-d {device}	Only on the Amiga and when not compiled with the +diff
		feature.  Works like "-dev".
							-dev
-dev {device}	Only on the Amiga: The {device} is opened to be used for
		editing.
		Normally you would use this to set the window position and
		size: "-d con:x/y/width/height", e.g.,
		"-d con:30/10/600/150".  But you can also use it to start
		editing on another device, e.g., AUX:.
							-f
-f		GUI: Do not disconnect from the program that started Vim.
		'f' stands for "foreground".  If omitted, the GUI forks a new
		process and exits the current one.  "-f" should be used when
		gvim is started by a program that will wait for the edit
		session to finish (e.g., mail or readnews).  If you want gvim
		never to fork, include 'f' in 'guioptions' in your gvimrc.
		Careful: You can use "-gf" to start the GUI in the foreground,
		but "-fg" is used to specify the foreground color.  gui-fork

		Amiga: Do not restart Vim to open a new window.  This
		option should be used when Vim is started by a program that
		will wait for the edit session to finish (e.g., mail or
		readnews).  See amiga-window.

		MS-Windows: This option is not supported.  However, when
		running Vim with an installed vim.bat or gvim.bat file it
		works.


							--nofork
--nofork	GUI: Do not fork.  Same as -f.
							-u E282
-u {vimrc}	The file {vimrc} is read for initializations.  Most other
		initializations are skipped; see initialization.

		This can be used to start Vim in a special mode, with special
		mappings and settings.  A shell alias can be used to make
		this easy to use.  For example: 
			alias vimc vim -u ~/.c_vimrc !*
		Also consider using autocommands; see autocommand.

		When {vimrc} is equal to "NONE" (all uppercase), all
		initializations from files and environment variables are
		skipped, including reading the gvimrc file when the GUI
		starts.  Loading plugins is also skipped.

		When {vimrc} is equal to "NORC" (all uppercase), this has the
		same effect as "NONE", but loading plugins is not skipped.

		When {vimrc} is equal to "DEFAULTS" (all uppercase), this has
		the same effect as "NONE", but the defaults.vim script is
		loaded, which will also set 'nocompatible'.  Also see
		--clean.

		Using the "-u" argument with another argument than DEFAULTS
		has the side effect that the 'compatible' option will be on by
		default.  This can have unexpected effects.  See
		'compatible'.

							-U E230
-U {gvimrc}	The file {gvimrc} is read for initializations when the GUI
		starts.  Other GUI initializations are skipped.  When {gvimrc}
		is equal to "NONE", no file is read for GUI initializations at
		all.  gui-init
		Exception: Reading the system-wide menu file is always done.

							-i
-i {viminfo}	The file "viminfo" is used instead of the default viminfo
		file.  If the name "NONE" is used (all uppercase), no viminfo
		file is read or written, even if 'viminfo' is set or when
		":rv" or ":wv" are used.  See also viminfo-file.

							--clean
--clean		Similar to "-u DEFAULTS -U NONE -i NONE":
		- initializations from files and environment variables is
		  skipped
		- 'runtimepath' and 'packpath' are set to exclude home
		  directory entries (does not happen with -u DEFAULTS).
		- the defaults.vim script is loaded, which implies
		  'nocompatible': use Vim defaults
		- no gvimrc script is loaded
		- no viminfo file is read or written
		Note that a following "-u" argument overrules the effect of
		"-u DEFAULTS".

							-x
-x		Use encryption to read/write files.  Will prompt for a key,
		which is then stored in the 'key' option.  All writes will
		then use this key to encrypt the text.  The '-x' argument is
		not needed when reading a file, because there is a check if
		the file that is being read has been encrypted, and Vim asks
		for a key automatically. encryption

							-X
-X		Do not try connecting to the X server to get the current
		window title and copy/paste using the X clipboard.  This
		avoids a long startup time when running Vim in a terminal
		emulator and the connection to the X server is slow.
		See --startuptime to find out if affects you.
		Only makes a difference on Unix or VMS, when compiled with the
		+X11 feature.  Otherwise it's ignored.
		To disable the connection only for specific terminals, see the
		'clipboard' option.
		When the X11 Session Management Protocol (XSMP) handler has
		been built in, the -X option also disables that connection as
		it, too, may have undesirable delays.
		When the connection is desired later anyway (e.g., for
		client-server messages), call the serverlist() function.
		This does not enable the XSMP handler though.

							-s
-s {scriptin}	The script file "scriptin" is read.  The characters in the
		file are interpreted as if you had typed them.  The same can
		be done with the command ":source! {scriptin}".  If the end
		of the file is reached before the editor exits, further
		characters are read from the keyboard.  Only works when not
		started in Ex mode, see -s-ex.  See also complex-repeat.

							-w_nr
-w {number}
-w{number}	Set the 'window' option to {number}.

							-w
-w {scriptout}	All the characters that you type are recorded in the file
		"scriptout", until you exit Vim.  This is useful if you want
		to create a script file to be used with "vim -s" or
		":source!".  When the "scriptout" file already exists, new
		characters are appended.  See also complex-repeat.
		{scriptout} cannot start with a digit.
		If you want to record what is typed in a human readable for
		you can use ch_logfile(), It adds "raw key input" lines.
		Also see --log.

							-W
-W {scriptout}	Like -w, but do not append, overwrite an existing file.

--remote [+{cmd}] {file} ...
		Open the {file} in another Vim that functions as a server.
		Any non-file arguments must come before this.
		See --remote.

--remote-silent [+{cmd}] {file} ...
		Like --remote, but don't complain if there is no server.
		See --remote-silent.

--remote-wait [+{cmd}] {file} ...
		Like --remote, but wait for the server to finish editing the
		file(s).
		See --remote-wait.

--remote-wait-silent [+{cmd}] {file} ...
		Like --remote-wait, but don't complain if there is no server.
		See --remote-wait-silent.

--servername {name}
		Specify the name of the Vim server to send to or to become.
		See --servername.

--remote-send {keys}
		Send {keys} to a Vim server and exit.
		See --remote-send.

--remote-expr {expr}
		Evaluate {expr} in another Vim that functions as a server.
		The result is printed on stdout.
		See --remote-expr.

--serverlist	Output a list of Vim server names and exit.  See
		--serverlist.

--socketid {id}						--socketid
		GTK+ GUI Vim only.  Make gvim try to use GtkPlug mechanism, so
		that it runs inside another window.  See gui-gtk-socketid
		for details.

--windowid {id}						--windowid
		Win32 GUI Vim only.  Make gvim try to use the window {id} as a
		parent, so that it runs inside that window.  See
		gui-w32-windowid for details.

--echo-wid						--echo-wid
		GTK+ GUI Vim only.  Make gvim echo the Window ID on stdout,
		which can be used to run gvim in a kpart widget.  The format
		of the output is: 
			WID: 12345\n

--role {role}						--role
		GTK+ 2 GUI only.  Set the role of the main window to {role}.
		The window role can be used by a window manager to uniquely
		identify a window, in order to restore window placement and
		such.  The --role argument is passed automatically when
		restoring the session on login.  See gui-gnome-session

-P {parent-title}				-P MDI E671 E672
		Win32 only: Specify the title of the parent application.  When
		possible, Vim will run in an MDI window inside the
		application.
		{parent-title} must appear in the window title of the parent
		application.  Make sure that it is specific enough.
		Note that the implementation is still primitive.  It won't
		work with all applications and the menu doesn't work.

-nb							-nb
-nb={fname}
-nb:{hostname}:{addr}:{password}
		Attempt connecting to Netbeans and become an editor server for
		it.  The second form specifies a file to read connection info
		from.  The third form specifies the hostname, address and
		password for connecting to Netbeans. netbeans-run
		{only available when compiled with the +netbeans_intg
		feature; if not then -nb will make Vim exit}

If the executable is called "view", Vim will start in Readonly mode.  This is
useful if you can make a hard or symbolic link from "view" to "vim".
Starting in Readonly mode can also be done with "vim -R".

If the executable is called "ex", Vim will start in "Ex" mode.  This means it
will accept only ":" commands.  But when the "-v" argument is given, Vim will
start in Normal mode anyway.

Additional arguments are available on unix like systems when compiled with
X11 GUI support.  See gui-resources.

==============================================================================
2. Vim on the Amiga					starting-amiga

Starting Vim from the Workbench				workbench
-------------------------------

Vim can be started from the Workbench by clicking on its icon twice.  It will
then start with an empty buffer.

Vim can be started to edit one or more files by using a "Project" icon.  The
"Default Tool" of the icon must be the full pathname of the Vim executable.
The name of the ".info" file must be the same as the name of the text file.
By clicking on this icon twice, Vim will be started with the file name as
current file name, which will be read into the buffer (if it exists).  You can
edit multiple files by pressing the shift key while clicking on icons, and
clicking twice on the last one.  The "Default Tool" for all these icons must
be the same.

It is not possible to give arguments to Vim, other than file names, from the
workbench.

Vim window						amiga-window
----------

Vim will run in the CLI window where it was started.  If Vim was started with
the "run" or "runback" command, or if Vim was started from the workbench, it
will open a window of its own.

Technical detail:
	To open the new window a little trick is used.  As soon as Vim
	recognizes that it does not run in a normal CLI window, it will
	create a script file in "t:".  This script file contains the same
	command as the one Vim was started with, and an "endcli" command.
	This script file is then executed with a "newcli" command (the "c:run"
	and "c:newcli" commands are required for this to work).  The script
	file will hang around until reboot, or until you delete it.  This
	method is required to get the ":sh" and ":!" commands to work
	correctly.  But when Vim was started with the -f option (foreground
	mode), this method is not used.  The reason for this is that
	when a program starts Vim with the -f option it will wait for Vim to
	exit.  With the script trick, the calling program does not know when
	Vim exits.  The -f option can be used when Vim is started by a mail
	program which also waits for the edit session to finish.  As a
	consequence, the ":sh" and ":!" commands are not available when the
	-f option is used.

Vim will automatically recognize the window size and react to window
resizing.  Under Amiga DOS 1.3, it is advised to use the fastfonts program,
"FF", to speed up display redrawing.

==============================================================================
3. Running eVim							evim-keys

EVim runs Vim as click-and-type editor.  This is very unlike the original Vi
idea.  But it helps for people that don't use Vim often enough to learn the
commands.  Hopefully they will find out that learning to use Normal mode
commands will make their editing much more effective.

In Evim these options are changed from their default value:

	:set nocompatible	Use Vim improvements
	:set insertmode		Remain in Insert mode most of the time
	:set hidden		Keep invisible buffers loaded
	:set backup		Keep backup files (not for VMS)
	:set backspace=2	Backspace over everything
	:set autoindent		auto-indent new lines
	:set history=50		keep 50 lines of Ex commands
	:set ruler		show the cursor position
	:set incsearch		show matches halfway typing a pattern
	:set mouse=a		use the mouse in all modes
	:set hlsearch		highlight all matches for a search pattern
	:set whichwrap+=<,>,[,]  <Left> and <Right> wrap around line breaks
	:set guioptions-=a	non-Unix only: don't do auto-select

Key mappings:
	<CTRL-Q>	quit, using :confirm prompt if there are changes
	<Down>		moves by screen lines rather than file lines
	<Up>		idem
	Q		does "gq", formatting, instead of Ex mode
	<BS>		in Visual mode: deletes the selection
	CTRL-X		in Visual mode: Cut to clipboard
	<S-Del>		idem
	CTRL-C		in Visual mode: Copy to clipboard
	<C-Insert>	idem
	CTRL-V		Pastes from the clipboard (in any mode)
	<S-Insert>	idem
	CTRL-Z		undo
	CTRL-Y		redo
	<M-Space>	system menu
	CTRL-A		select all
	<C-Tab>		next window, CTRL-W w
	<C-F4>		close window, CTRL-W c

Additionally:
- ":behave mswin" is used :behave
- syntax highlighting is enabled
- filetype detection is enabled, filetype plugins and indenting is enabled
- in a text file 'textwidth' is set to 78

One hint: If you want to go to Normal mode to be able to type a sequence of
commands, use CTRL-L. i_CTRL-L

There is no way to stop "easy mode", you need to exit Vim.

==============================================================================
4. Initialization				initialization startup

This section is about the non-GUI version of Vim.  See gui-fork for
additional initialization when starting the GUI.

At startup, Vim checks environment variables and files and sets values
accordingly.  Vim proceeds in this order:

1. Set the 'shell' and 'term' option		SHELL COMSPEC TERM
	The environment variable SHELL, if it exists, is used to set the
	'shell' option.  On Win32, the COMSPEC variable is used
	if SHELL is not set.
	The environment variable TERM, if it exists, is used to set the 'term'
	option.  However, 'term' will change later when starting the GUI (step
	8 below).

2. Process the arguments
	The options and file names from the command that start Vim are
	inspected.
	The -V argument can be used to display or log what happens next,
	useful for debugging the initializations.
	The --cmd arguments are executed.
	Buffers are created for all files (but not loaded yet).

3. Execute Ex commands, from environment variables and/or files
	An environment variable is read as one Ex command line, where multiple
	commands must be separated with '|' or "<NL>".
								vimrc exrc
	A file that contains initialization commands is called a "vimrc" file.
	Each line in a vimrc file is executed as an Ex command line.  It is
	sometimes also referred to as "exrc" file.  They are the same type of
	file, but "exrc" is what Vi always used, "vimrc" is a Vim specific
	name.  Also see vimrc-intro.

	Places for your personal initializations:
		Unix		$HOME/.vimrc or $HOME/.vim/vimrc
		MS-Windows	$HOME/_vimrc, $HOME/vimfiles/vimrc
				or $VIM/_vimrc
		Amiga		s:.vimrc, home:.vimrc, home:vimfiles:vimrc
				or $VIM/.vimrc
		Haiku		$HOME/config/settings/vim/vimrc

	The files are searched in the order specified above and only the first
	one that is found is read.

	RECOMMENDATION: Put all your Vim configuration stuff in the
	$HOME/.vim/ directory ($HOME/vimfiles/ for MS-Windows). That makes it
	easy to copy it to another system.

	If Vim was started with "-u filename", the file "filename" is used.
	All following initializations until 4. are skipped. $MYVIMRC is not
	set.
	"vim -u NORC" can be used to skip these initializations without
	reading a file.  "vim -u NONE" also skips loading plugins.  -u

	If Vim was started in Ex mode with the "-s" argument, all following
	initializations until 4. are skipped.  Only the "-u" option is
	interpreted.
							evim.vim
     a. If vim was started as evim or eview or with the -y argument, the
	script $VIMRUNTIME/evim.vim will be loaded.
							system-vimrc
     b. For Unix, MS-Windows, VMS, Macintosh and Amiga the system vimrc file
	is read for initializations.  The path of this file is shown with the
	":version" command.  Mostly it's "$VIM/vimrc".  Note that this file is
	ALWAYS read in 'compatible' mode, since the automatic resetting of
	'compatible' is only done later.  Add a ":set nocp" command if you
	like.  For the Macintosh the $VIMRUNTIME/macmap.vim is read.

	  VIMINIT .vimrc _vimrc EXINIT .exrc _exrc $MYVIMRC
     c. Five places are searched for initializations.  The first that exists
	is used, the others are ignored.  The $MYVIMRC environment variable is
	set to the file that was first found, unless $MYVIMRC was already set
	and when using VIMINIT.
	I   The environment variable VIMINIT (see also compatible-default) (*)
	    The value of $VIMINIT is used as an Ex command line.
	II  The user vimrc file(s):
		    "$HOME/.vimrc"	   (for Unix) (*)
		    "$HOME/.vim/vimrc"	   (for Unix) (*)
		    "s:.vimrc"		   (for Amiga) (*)
		    "home:.vimrc"	   (for Amiga) (*)
		    "home:vimfiles:vimrc"  (for Amiga) (*)
		    "$VIM/.vimrc"	   (for Amiga) (*)
		    "$HOME/_vimrc"	   (for Win32) (*)
		    "$HOME/vimfiles/vimrc" (for Win32) (*)
		    "$VIM/_vimrc"	   (for Win32) (*)
		    "$HOME/config/settings/vim/vimrc"	(for Haiku) (*)

		Note: For Unix and Amiga, when ".vimrc" does not exist,
		"_vimrc" is also tried, in case an MS-DOS compatible file
		system is used.  For MS-Windows ".vimrc" is checked after
		"_vimrc", in case long file names are used.
		Note: For Win32, "$HOME" is checked first.  If no "_vimrc" or
		".vimrc" is found there, "$VIM" is tried.  See $VIM for when
		$VIM is not set.
	III The environment variable EXINIT.
	    The value of $EXINIT is used as an Ex command line.
	IV  The user exrc file(s).  Same as for the user vimrc file, but with
	    "vimrc" replaced by "exrc".  But only one of ".exrc" and "_exrc" is
	    used, depending on the system.  And without the (*)!
	V   The default vimrc file, $VIMRUNTIME/defaults.vim.  This sets up
	    options values and has "syntax on" and "filetype on" commands,
	    which is what most new users will want.  See defaults.vim.

     d. If the 'exrc' option is on (which is NOT the default), the current
	directory is searched for three files.  The first that exists is used,
	the others are ignored.
	-  The file ".vimrc" (for Unix, Amiga) (*)
		    "_vimrc" (for Win32) (*)
	-  The file "_vimrc" (for Unix, Amiga) (*)
		    ".vimrc" (for Win32) (*)
	-  The file ".exrc"  (for Unix, Amiga)
		    "_exrc"  (for Win32)

     (*) Using this file or environment variable will cause 'compatible' to be
	 off by default.  See compatible-default.

     Note: When using the mzscheme interface, it is initialized after loading
     the vimrc file.  Changing 'mzschemedll' later has no effect.

4. Load the plugin scripts.					load-plugins
	This does the same as the command: 
		:runtime! plugin/**/*.vim
	The result is that all directories in the 'runtimepath' option will be
	searched for the "plugin" sub-directory and all files ending in ".vim"
	will be sourced (in alphabetical order per directory), also in
	subdirectories.
	However, directories in 'runtimepath' ending in "after" are skipped
	here and only loaded after packages, see below.
	Loading plugins won't be done when:
	- The 'loadplugins' option was reset in a vimrc file.
	- The --noplugin command line argument is used.
	- The --clean command line argument is used.
	- The "-u NONE" command line argument is used -u.
	- When Vim was compiled without the +eval feature.
	Note that using "-c 'set noloadplugins'" doesn't work, because the
	commands from the command line have not been executed yet.  You can
	use "--cmd 'set noloadplugins'" or "--cmd 'set loadplugins'" --cmd.

	Packages are loaded.  These are plugins, as above, but found in the
	"start" directory of each entry in 'packpath'.  Every plugin directory
	found is added in 'runtimepath' and then the plugins are sourced.  See
	packages.

	The plugins scripts are loaded, as above, but now only the directories
	ending in "after" are used.  Note that 'runtimepath' will have changed
	if packages have been found, but that should not add a directory
	ending in "after".

5. Set 'shellpipe' and 'shellredir'
	The 'shellpipe' and 'shellredir' options are set according to the
	value of the 'shell' option, unless they have been set before.
	This means that Vim will figure out the values of 'shellpipe' and
	'shellredir' for you, unless you have set them yourself.

6. Set 'updatecount' to zero, if "-n" command argument used

7. Set binary options
	If the "-b" flag was given to Vim, the options for binary editing will
	be set now.  See -b.

8. Perform GUI initializations
	Only when starting "gvim", the GUI initializations will be done.  See
	gui-init.

9. Read the viminfo file
	If the 'viminfo' option is not empty, the viminfo file is read.  See
	viminfo-file.

10. Read the quickfix file
	If the "-q" flag was given to Vim, the quickfix file is read.  If this
	fails, Vim exits.

11. Open all windows
	When the -o flag was given, windows will be opened (but not
	displayed yet).
	When the -p flag was given, tab pages will be created (but not
	displayed yet).
	When switching screens, it happens now.  Redrawing starts.
	If the "-q" flag was given to Vim, the first error is jumped to.
	Buffers for all windows will be loaded, without triggering BufAdd
	autocommands.

12. Execute startup commands
	If a "-t" flag was given to Vim, the tag is jumped to.
	The commands given with the -c and +cmd arguments are executed.
	If the 'insertmode' option is set, Insert mode is entered.
	The starting flag is reset, has("vim_starting") will now return zero.
	The v:vim_did_enter variable is set to 1.
	The VimEnter autocommands are executed.

The $MYVIMRC or $MYGVIMRC file will be set to the first found vimrc and/or
gvimrc file.


Some hints on using initializations 

Standard setup:
Create a vimrc file to set the default settings and mappings for all your edit
sessions.  Put it in a place so that it will be found by 3b:
	~/.vimrc	(Unix)
	s:.vimrc	(Amiga)
	$VIM\_vimrc	(Win32)
	~/config/settings/vim/vimrc (Haiku)

Note that creating a vimrc file will cause the 'compatible' option to be off
by default.  See compatible-default.

Local setup:
Put all commands that you need for editing a specific directory only into a
vimrc file and place it in that directory under the name ".vimrc" ("_vimrc"
for Win32).  NOTE: To make Vim look for these special files you have to turn
on the option 'exrc'.  See trojan-horse too.

System setup:
This only applies if you are managing a Unix system with several users and
want to set the defaults for all users.  Create a vimrc file with commands
for default settings and mappings and put it in the place that is given with
the ":version" command.


Saving the current state of Vim to a file 

Whenever you have changed values of options or when you have created a
mapping, then you may want to save them in a vimrc file for later use.  See
save-settings about saving the current state of settings to a file.


Avoiding setup problems for Vi users 

Vi uses the variable EXINIT and the file "~/.exrc".  So if you do not want to
interfere with Vi, then use the variable VIMINIT and the file "vimrc" instead.


Amiga environment variables 

On the Amiga, two types of environment variables exist.  The ones set with the
DOS 1.3 (or later) setenv command are recognized.  See the AmigaDos 1.3
manual.  The environment variables set with the old Manx Set command (before
version 5.0) are not recognized.


MS-Windows line separators 

On MS-Windows, Vim assumes that all the vimrc files have <CR><NL> pairs as
line separators.  This will give problems if you have a file with only <NL>s
and have a line like ":map xx yy^M".  The trailing ^M will be ignored.


Vi compatible default value 
						     compatible-default
When Vim starts, the 'compatible' option is on.  This will be used when Vim
starts its initializations.  But as soon as:
- a user vimrc file is found, or
- a vimrc file in the current directory is found, or
- the "VIMINIT" environment variable is set, or
- the "-N" command line argument is given, or
- the "--clean" command line argument is given, or
- the defaults.vim script is loaded, or
- a gvimrc file was found,
then the option will be set to 'nocompatible'.

Note that this does NOT happen when a system-wide vimrc file was found.

This has the side effect of setting or resetting other options (see
'compatible').  But only the options that have not been set or reset will be
changed.  This has the same effect like the value of 'compatible' had this
value when starting Vim.

'compatible' is NOT reset, and defaults.vim is not loaded:
- when Vim was started with the -u command line argument, especially with
  "-u NONE", or
- when started with the -C command line argument, or
- when the name of the executable ends in "ex". (This has been done to make
  Vim behave like "ex", when it is started as "ex")

But there is a side effect of setting or resetting 'compatible' at the moment
a .vimrc file is found: Mappings are interpreted the moment they are
encountered.  This makes a difference when using things like "<CR>".  If the
mappings depend on a certain value of 'compatible', set or reset it before
giving the mapping.


Defaults without a .vimrc file 
							defaults.vim E1187
If Vim is started normally and no user vimrc file is found, the
$VIMRUNTIME/defaults.vim script is loaded.  This will set 'compatible' off,
switch on syntax highlighting and a few more things.  See the script for
details.  NOTE: this is done since Vim 8.0, not in Vim 7.4. (it was added in
patch 7.4.2111 to be exact).

This should work well for new Vim users.  If you create your own .vimrc, it is
recommended to add these lines somewhere near the top: 
	unlet! skip_defaults_vim
	source $VIMRUNTIME/defaults.vim
Then Vim works like before you had a .vimrc. Copying $VIMRUNTIME/vimrc_example
is way to do this.  Alternatively, you can copy defaults.vim to your .vimrc
and modify it (but then you won't get updates when it changes).

If you don't like some of the defaults, you can still source defaults.vim and
revert individual settings.  See the defaults.vim file for hints on how to
revert each item.
						skip_defaults_vim
If you use a system-wide vimrc and don't want defaults.vim to change settings,
set the "skip_defaults_vim" variable.  If this was set and you want to load
defaults.vim from your .vimrc, first unlet skip_defaults_vim, as in the
example above.


Avoiding trojan horses 
							trojan-horse
While reading the "vimrc" or the "exrc" file in the current directory, some
commands can be disabled for security reasons by setting the 'secure' option.
This is always done when executing the command from a tags file.  Otherwise it
would be possible that you accidentally use a vimrc or tags file that somebody
else created and contains nasty commands.  The disabled commands are the ones
that start a shell, the ones that write to a file, and ":autocmd".  The ":map"
commands are echoed, so you can see which keys are being mapped.
	If you want Vim to execute all commands in a local vimrc file, you
can reset the 'secure' option in the EXINIT or VIMINIT environment variable or
in the global "exrc" or "vimrc" file.  This is not possible in "vimrc" or
"exrc" in the current directory, for obvious reasons.
	On Unix systems, this only happens if you are not the owner of the
vimrc file.  Warning: If you unpack an archive that contains a vimrc or exrc
file, it will be owned by you.  You won't have the security protection.  Check
the vimrc file before you start Vim in that directory, or reset the 'exrc'
option.  Some Unix systems allow a user to do "chown" on a file.  This makes
it possible for another user to create a nasty vimrc and make you the owner.
Be careful!
	When using tag search commands, executing the search command (the last
part of the line in the tags file) is always done in secure mode.  This works
just like executing a command from a vimrc/exrc in the current directory.


If Vim startup is slow 
							slow-start
If Vim takes a long time to start up, use the --startuptime argument to find
out what happens.  There are a few common causes:
- If the Unix version was compiled with the GUI and/or X11 (check the output
  of ":version" for "+GUI" and "+X11"), it may need to load shared libraries
  and connect to the X11 server.  Try compiling a version with GUI and X11
  disabled.  This also should make the executable smaller.
  Use the -X command line argument to avoid connecting to the X server when
  running in a terminal.
- If you have "viminfo" enabled, the loading of the viminfo file may take a
  while.  You can find out if this is the problem by disabling viminfo for a
  moment (use the Vim argument "-i NONE", -i).  Try reducing the number of
  lines stored in a register with ":set viminfo='20,<50,s10".  viminfo-file.


Intro message 
							:intro
When Vim starts without a file name, an introductory message is displayed (for
those who don't know what Vim is).  It is removed as soon as the display is
redrawn in any way.  To see the message again, use the ":intro" command (if
there is not enough room, you will see only part of it).
   To avoid the intro message on startup, add the 'I' flag to 'shortmess'.

							info-message
The --help and --version arguments cause Vim to print a message and then
exit.  Normally the message is sent to stdout, thus can be redirected to a
file with: 

	vim --help >file

From inside Vim: 

	:read !vim --help

When using gvim, it detects that it might have been started from the desktop,
without a terminal to show messages on.  This is detected when both stdout and
stderr are not a tty.  This breaks the ":read" command, as used in the example
above.  To make it work again, set 'shellredir' to ">" instead of the default
">&": 

	:set shellredir=>
	:read !gvim --help

This still won't work for systems where gvim does not use stdout at all
though.

==============================================================================
5. $VIM and $VIMRUNTIME
								$VIM
The environment variable "$VIM" is used to locate various user files for Vim,
such as the user startup script ".vimrc".  This depends on the system, see
startup.

To avoid the need for every user to set the $VIM environment variable, Vim
will try to get the value for $VIM in this order:
1. The value defined by the $VIM environment variable.  You can use this to
   make Vim look in a specific directory for its support files.  Example: 
	setenv VIM /home/paul/vim
2. The path from 'helpfile' is used, unless it contains some environment
   variable too (the default is "$VIMRUNTIME/doc/help.txt": chicken-egg
   problem).  The file name ("help.txt" or any other) is removed.  Then
   trailing directory names are removed, in this order: "doc", "runtime" and
   "vim{version}" (e.g., "vim82").
3. For Win32 Vim tries to use the directory name of the executable.  If it
   ends in "/src", this is removed.  This is useful if you unpacked the .zip
   file in some directory, and adjusted the search path to find the vim
   executable.  Trailing directory names are removed, in this order: "runtime"
   and "vim{version}" (e.g., "vim82").
4. For Unix the compile-time defined installation directory is used (see the
   output of ":version").

Once Vim has done this once, it will set the $VIM environment variable.  To
change it later, use a ":let" command like this: 
	:let $VIM = "/home/paul/vim/"

								$VIMRUNTIME
The environment variable "$VIMRUNTIME" is used to locate various support
files, such as the on-line documentation and files used for syntax
highlighting.  For example, the main help file is normally
"$VIMRUNTIME/doc/help.txt".
You don't normally set $VIMRUNTIME yourself, but let Vim figure it out.  This
is the order used to find the value of $VIMRUNTIME:
1. If the environment variable $VIMRUNTIME is set, it is used.  You can use
   this when the runtime files are in an unusual location.
2. If "$VIM/vim{version}" exists, it is used.  {version} is the version
   number of Vim, without any '-' or '.'.  For example: "$VIM/vim82".  This is
   the normal value for $VIMRUNTIME.
3. If "$VIM/runtime" exists, it is used.
4. The value of $VIM is used.  This is for backwards compatibility with older
   versions.
5. When the 'helpfile' option is set and doesn't contain a '$', its value is
   used, with "doc/help.txt" removed from the end.

For Unix, when there is a compiled-in default for $VIMRUNTIME (check the
output of ":version"), steps 2, 3 and 4 are skipped, and the compiled-in
default is used after step 5.  This means that the compiled-in default
overrules the value of $VIM.  This is useful if $VIM is "/etc" and the runtime
files are in "/usr/share/vim/vim82".

Once Vim has done this once, it will set the $VIMRUNTIME environment variable.
To change it later, use a ":let" command like this: 
	:let $VIMRUNTIME = "/home/piet/vim/vim82"

In case you need the value of $VIMRUNTIME in a shell (e.g., for a script that
greps in the help files) you might be able to use this: 

	VIMRUNTIME=`vim -e -T dumb --cmd 'exe "set t_cm=\<C-M>"|echo $VIMRUNTIME|quit' | tr -d '\015' `

Don't set $VIMRUNTIME to an empty value, some things may stop working.

==============================================================================
6. Suspending						suspend

					iconize iconise CTRL-Z v_CTRL-Z
CTRL-Z			Suspend Vim, like ":stop".
			Works in Normal and in Visual mode.  In Insert and
			Command-line mode, the CTRL-Z is inserted as a normal
			character.  In Visual mode Vim goes back to Normal
			mode.
			Note: if CTRL-Z undoes a change see mswin.vim.


:sus[pend][!]	or			:sus :suspend :st :stop
:st[op][!]		Suspend Vim.
			If the '!' is not given and 'autowrite' is set, every
			buffer with changes and a file name is written out.
			If the '!' is given or 'autowrite' is not set, changed
			buffers are not written, don't forget to bring Vim
			back to the foreground later!

In the GUI, suspending is implemented as iconising gvim.  In MS-Windows, gvim
is minimized.

On many Unix systems, it is possible to suspend Vim with CTRL-Z.  This is only
possible in Normal and Visual mode (see next chapter, vim-modes).  Vim will
continue if you make it the foreground job again.  On other systems, CTRL-Z
will start a new shell.  This is the same as the ":sh" command.  Vim will
continue if you exit from the shell.

In X-windows the selection is disowned when Vim suspends.  this means you
can't paste it in another application (since Vim is going to sleep an attempt
to get the selection would make the program hang).

==============================================================================
7. Exiting						exiting

There are several ways to exit Vim:
- Close the last window with :quit.  Only when there are no changes.
- Close the last window with :quit!.  Also when there are changes.
- Close all windows with :qall.  Only when there are no changes.
- Close all windows with :qall!.  Also when there are changes.
- Use :cquit.  Also when there are changes.

When using :cquit or when there was an error message Vim exits with exit
code 1.  Errors can be avoided by using :silent! or with :catch.

==============================================================================
8. Saving settings					save-settings

Mostly you will edit your vimrc files manually.  This gives you the greatest
flexibility.  There are a few commands to generate a vimrc file automatically.
You can use these files as they are, or copy/paste lines to include in another
vimrc file.

							:mk :mkexrc
:mk[exrc] [file]	Write current key mappings and changed options to
			[file] (default ".exrc" in the current directory),
			unless it already exists.

:mk[exrc]! [file]	Always write current key mappings and changed
			options to [file] (default ".exrc" in the current
			directory).

						:mkv :mkvi :mkvimrc
:mkv[imrc][!] [file]	Like ":mkexrc", but the default is ".vimrc" in the
			current directory.  The ":version" command is also
			written to the file.

These commands will write ":map" and ":set" commands to a file, in such a way
that when these commands are executed, the current key mappings and options
will be set to the same values.  The options 'columns', 'endofline',
'fileformat', 'key', 'lines', 'modified', 'scroll', 'term', 'textmode',
'ttyfast' and 'ttymouse' are not included, because these are terminal or file
dependent.  Note that the options 'binary', 'paste' and 'readonly' are
included, this might not always be what you want.

When special keys are used in mappings, The 'cpoptions' option will be
temporarily set to its Vim default, to avoid the mappings to be
misinterpreted.  This makes the file incompatible with Vi, but makes sure it
can be used with different terminals.

Only global mappings are stored, not mappings local to a buffer.

A common method is to use a default ".vimrc" file, make some modifications
with ":map" and ":set" commands and write the modified file.  First read the
default ".vimrc" in with a command like ":source ~piet/.vimrc.Cprogs", change
the settings and then save them in the current directory with ":mkvimrc!".  If
you want to make this file your default .vimrc, move it to your home directory
(on Unix), s: (Amiga) or $VIM directory (MS-Windows).  You could also use
autocommands autocommand and/or modelines modeline.

						vimrc-option-example
If you only want to add a single option setting to your vimrc, you can use
these steps:
1. Edit your vimrc file with Vim.
2. Play with the option until it's right.  E.g., try out different values for
   'guifont'.
3. Append a line to set the value of the option, using the expression register
   '=' to enter the value.  E.g., for the 'guifont' option: 
   o:set guifont=<C-R>=&guifont<CR><Esc>
  [<C-R> is a CTRL-R, <CR> is a return, <Esc> is the escape key]
   You need to escape special characters, esp. spaces.

Note that when you create a .vimrc file, this can influence the 'compatible'
option, which has several side effects.  See 'compatible'.
":mkvimrc", ":mkexrc" and ":mksession" write the command to set or reset the
'compatible' option to the output file first, because of these side effects.

==============================================================================
9. Views and Sessions					views-sessions

This is introduced in sections 21.4 and 21.5 of the user manual.

						View view-file
A View is a collection of settings that apply to one window.  You can save a
View and when you restore it later, the text is displayed in the same way.
The options and mappings in this window will also be restored, so that you can
continue editing like when the View was saved.

						Session session-file
A Session keeps the Views for all windows, plus the global settings.  You can
save a Session and when you restore it later the window layout looks the same.
You can use a Session to quickly switch between different projects,
automatically loading the files you were last working on in that project.

Views and Sessions are a nice addition to viminfo-files, which are used to
remember information for all Views and Sessions together viminfo-file.

You can quickly start editing with a previously saved View or Session with the
-S argument: 
	vim -S Session.vim

All this is {not available when compiled without the |+mksession| feature}.

							:mks :mksession
:mks[ession][!] [file]	Write a Vim script that restores the current editing
			session.
			When [!] is included an existing file is overwritten.
			When [file] is omitted "Session.vim" is used.

The output of ":mksession" is like ":mkvimrc", but additional commands are
added to the file.  Which ones depends on the 'sessionoptions' option.  The
resulting file, when executed with a ":source" command:
1. Restores global mappings and options, if 'sessionoptions' contains
   "options".  Script-local mappings will not be written.
2. Restores global variables that start with an uppercase letter and contain
   at least one lowercase letter, if 'sessionoptions' contains "globals".
3. Closes all windows in the current tab page, except the current one; closes
   all tab pages except the current one (this results in currently loaded
   buffers to be unloaded, some may become hidden if 'hidden' is set or
   otherwise specified); wipes out the current buffer, if it is empty
   and unnamed.
4. Restores the current directory if 'sessionoptions' contains "curdir", or
   sets the current directory to where the Session file is if 'sessionoptions'
   contains "sesdir".
5. Restores GUI Vim window position, if 'sessionoptions' contains "winpos".
6. Restores screen size, if 'sessionoptions' contains "resize".
7. Reloads the buffer list, with the last cursor positions.  If
   'sessionoptions' contains "buffers" then all buffers are restored,
   including hidden and unloaded buffers.  Otherwise only buffers in windows
   are restored.
8. Restores all windows with the same layout.  If 'sessionoptions' contains
   "help", help windows are restored.  If 'sessionoptions' contains "blank",
   windows editing a buffer without a name will be restored.
   If 'sessionoptions' contains "winsize" and no (help/blank) windows were
   left out, the window sizes are restored (relative to the screen size).
   Otherwise, the windows are just given sensible sizes.
9. Restores the Views for all the windows, as with :mkview.  But
   'sessionoptions' is used instead of 'viewoptions'.
10. If a file exists with the same name as the Session file, but ending in
   "x.vim" (for eXtra), executes that as well.  You can use *x.vim files to
   specify additional settings and actions associated with a given Session,
   such as creating menu items in the GUI version.

After restoring the Session, the full filename of your current Session is
available in the internal variable "v:this_session" this_session-variable.
An example mapping: 
  :nmap <F2> :wa<Bar>exe "mksession! " .. v:this_session<CR>:so ~/sessions/
This saves the current Session, and starts off the command to load another.

A session includes all tab pages, unless "tabpages" was removed from
'sessionoptions'. tab-page

The SessionLoadPost autocmd event is triggered after a session file is
loaded/sourced.
						SessionLoad-variable
While the session file is loading the SessionLoad global variable is set to 1.
Plugins can use this to postpone some work until the SessionLoadPost event is
triggered.

							:mkvie :mkview
:mkvie[w][!] [file]	Write a Vim script that restores the contents of the
			current window.
			When [!] is included an existing file is overwritten.
			When [file] is omitted or is a number from 1 to 9, a
			name is generated and 'viewdir' prepended.  When the
			last path part of 'viewdir' does not exist, this
			directory is created.  E.g., when 'viewdir' is
			"$VIM/vimfiles/view" then "view" is created in
			"$VIM/vimfiles".
			An existing file is always overwritten then.  Use
			:loadview to load this view again.
			When [file] is the name of a file ('viewdir' is not
			used), a command to edit the file is added to the
			generated file.

The output of ":mkview" contains these items:
1. The argument list used in the window.  When the global argument list is
   used it is reset to the global list.
   The index in the argument list is also restored.
2. The file being edited in the window.  If there is no file, the window is
   made empty.
3. Restore mappings, abbreviations and options local to the window if
   'viewoptions' contains "options" or "localoptions".  For the options it
   restores only values that are local to the current buffer and values local
   to the window.
   When storing the view as part of a session and "options" is in
   'sessionoptions', global values for local options will be stored too.
4. Restore folds when using manual folding and 'viewoptions' contains
   "folds".  Restore manually opened and closed folds.
5. The scroll position and the cursor position in the file.  Doesn't work very
   well when there are closed folds.
6. The local current directory, if it is different from the global current
   directory and 'viewoptions' contains "curdir".

Note that Views and Sessions are not perfect:
- They don't restore everything.  For example, defined functions, autocommands
  and ":syntax on" are not included.  Things like register contents and
  command line history are in viminfo, not in Sessions or Views.
- Global option values are only set when they differ from the default value.
  When the current value is not the default value, loading a Session will not
  set it back to the default value.  Local options will be set back to the
  default value though.
- Existing mappings will be overwritten without warning.  An existing mapping
  may cause an error for ambiguity.
- When storing manual folds and when storing manually opened/closed folds,
  changes in the file between saving and loading the view will mess it up.
- The Vim script is not very efficient.  But still faster than typing the
  commands yourself!

							:lo :loadview
:lo[adview] [nr]	Load the view for the current file.  When [nr] is
			omitted, the view stored with ":mkview" is loaded.
			When [nr] is specified, the view stored with ":mkview
			[nr]" is loaded.

The combination of ":mkview" and ":loadview" can be used to store up to ten
different views of a file.  These are remembered in the directory specified
with the 'viewdir' option.  The views are stored using the file name.  If a
file is renamed or accessed through a (symbolic) link the view will not be
found.

You might want to clean up your 'viewdir' directory now and then.

To automatically save and restore views for *.c files: 
	au BufWinLeave *.c mkview
	au BufWinEnter *.c silent loadview

==============================================================================
10. The viminfo file				viminfo viminfo-file E136
						E575 E576 E577
If you exit Vim and later start it again, you would normally lose a lot of
information.  The viminfo file can be used to remember that information, which
enables you to continue where you left off.

This is introduced in section 21.3 of the user manual.

The viminfo file is used to store:
- The command line history.
- The search string history.
- The input-line history.
- Contents of non-empty registers.
- Marks for several files.
- File marks, pointing to locations in files.
- Last search/substitute pattern (for 'n' and '&').
- The buffer list.
- Global variables.

The viminfo file is not supported when the +viminfo feature has been
disabled at compile time.

You could also use a Session file.  The difference is that the viminfo file
does not depend on what you are working on.  There normally is only one
viminfo file.  Session files are used to save the state of a specific editing
Session.  You could have several Session files, one for each project you are
working on.  Viminfo and Session files together can be used to effectively
enter Vim and directly start working in your desired setup. session-file

							viminfo-read
When Vim is started and the 'viminfo' option is non-empty, the contents of
the viminfo file are read and the info can be used in the appropriate places.
The v:oldfiles variable is filled.  The marks are not read in at startup
(but file marks are).  See initialization for how to set the 'viminfo'
option upon startup.

							viminfo-write
When Vim exits and 'viminfo' is non-empty, the info is stored in the viminfo
file (it's actually merged with the existing one, if one exists).  The
'viminfo' option is a string containing information about what info should be
stored, and contains limits on how much should be stored (see 'viminfo').

Merging happens in two ways.  Most items that have been changed or set in the
current Vim session are stored, and what was not changed is filled from what
is currently in the viminfo file.  For example:
- Vim session A reads the viminfo, which contains variable START.
- Vim session B does the same
- Vim session A sets the variables AAA and BOTH and exits
- Vim session B sets the variables BBB and BOTH and exits
Now the viminfo will have:
   START - it was in the viminfo and wasn't changed in session A or B
   AAA   - value from session A, session B kept it
   BBB   - value from session B
   BOTH  - value from session B, value from session A is lost

							viminfo-timestamp
For some items a timestamp is used to keep the last changed version.  Here it
doesn't matter in which sequence Vim sessions exit, the newest item(s) are
always kept.  This is used for:
- The command line history.
- The search string history.
- The input-line history.
- Contents of non-empty registers.
- The jump list
- File marks
The timestamp feature was added before Vim 8.0.  Older versions of Vim,
starting with 7.4.1131, will keep the items with timestamp, but not use them.
Thus when using both an older and a newer version of Vim the most recent data
will be kept.

Notes for Unix:
- The file protection for the viminfo file will be set to prevent other users
  from being able to read it, because it may contain any text or commands that
  you have worked with.
- If you want to share the viminfo file with other users (e.g. when you "su"
  to another user), you can make the file writable for the group or everybody.
  Vim will preserve this when replacing the viminfo file.  Be careful, don't
  allow just anybody to read and write your viminfo file!
- Vim will not overwrite a viminfo file that is not writable by the current
  "real" user.  This helps for when you did "su" to become root, but your
  $HOME is still set to a normal user's home directory.  Otherwise Vim would
  create a viminfo file owned by root that nobody else can read.
- The viminfo file cannot be a symbolic link.  This is to avoid security
  issues.

Marks are stored for each file separately.  When a file is read and 'viminfo'
is non-empty, the marks for that file are read from the viminfo file.  NOTE:
The marks are only written when exiting Vim, which is fine because marks are
remembered for all the files you have opened in the current editing session,
unless ":bdel" is used.  If you want to save the marks for a file that you are
about to abandon with ":bdel", use ":wv".  The '[' and ']' marks are not
stored, but the '"' mark is.  The '"' mark is very useful for jumping to the
cursor position when the file was last exited.  No marks are saved for files
that start with any string given with the "r" flag in 'viminfo'.  This can be
used to avoid saving marks for files on removable media (for MS-Windows you
would use "ra:,rb:", for Amiga "rdf0:,rdf1:,rdf2:").
The v:oldfiles variable is filled with the file names that the viminfo file
has marks for.

							viminfo-file-marks
Uppercase marks ('A to 'Z) are stored when writing the viminfo file.  The
numbered marks ('0 to '9) are a bit special.  When the viminfo file is written
(when exiting or with the ":wviminfo" command), '0 is set to the current cursor
position and file.  The old '0 is moved to '1, '1 to '2, etc.  This
resembles what happens with the "1 to "9 delete registers.  If the current
cursor position is already present in '0 to '9, it is moved to '0, to avoid
having the same position twice.  The result is that with "'0", you can jump
back to the file and line where you exited Vim.  To do that right away, try
using this command: 

	vim -c "normal '0"

In a csh compatible shell you could make an alias for it: 

	alias lvim vim -c '"'normal "'"0'"'

For a bash-like shell: 

	alias lvim='vim -c "normal '\''0"'

Use the "r" flag in 'viminfo' to specify for which files no marks should be
remembered.


VIMINFO FILE NAME					viminfo-file-name

- The default name of the viminfo file is "$HOME/.viminfo" for Unix,
  "s:.viminfo" for Amiga, "$HOME\_viminfo" for Win32.  For Win32, when $HOME
  is not set, "$VIM\_viminfo" is used.  When $VIM is also not set,
  "c:\_viminfo" is used.
- The 'n' flag in the 'viminfo' option can be used to specify another viminfo
  file name 'viminfo'.
- The "-i" Vim argument can be used to set another file name, -i.  When the
  file name given is "NONE" (all uppercase), no viminfo file is ever read or
  written.  Also not for the commands below!
- The 'viminfofile' option can be used like the "-i" argument.  In fact, the
  value from the "-i" argument is stored in the 'viminfofile' option.
- For the commands below, another file name can be given, overriding the
  default and the name given with 'viminfo' or "-i" (unless it's NONE).


CHARACTER ENCODING					viminfo-encoding

The text in the viminfo file is encoded as specified with the 'encoding'
option.  Normally you will always work with the same 'encoding' value, and
this works just fine.  However, if you read the viminfo file with another
value for 'encoding' than what it was written with, some of the text
(non-ASCII characters) may be invalid.  If this is unacceptable, add the 'c'
flag to the 'viminfo' option: 
	:set viminfo+=c
Vim will then attempt to convert the text in the viminfo file from the
'encoding' value it was written with to the current 'encoding' value.  This
requires Vim to be compiled with the +iconv feature.  Filenames are not
converted.


MANUALLY READING AND WRITING				viminfo-read-write

Two commands can be used to read and write the viminfo file manually.  This
can be used to exchange registers between two running Vim programs: First
type ":wv" in one and then ":rv" in the other.  Note that if the register
already contained something, then ":rv!" would be required.  Also note
however that this means everything will be overwritten with information from
the first Vim, including the command line history, etc.

The viminfo file itself can be edited by hand too, although we suggest you
start with an existing one to get the format right.  It is reasonably
self-explanatory once you're in there.  This can be useful in order to
create a second file, say "~/.my_viminfo" which could contain certain
settings that you always want when you first start Vim.  For example, you
can preload registers with particular data, or put certain commands in the
command line history.  A line in your .vimrc file like 
	:rviminfo! ~/.my_viminfo
can be used to load this information.  You could even have different viminfos
for different types of files (e.g., C code) and load them based on the file
name, using the ":autocmd" command (see :autocmd).

							viminfo-errors
When Vim detects an error while reading a viminfo file, it will not overwrite
that file.  If there are more than 10 errors, Vim stops reading the viminfo
file.  This was done to avoid accidentally destroying a file when the file
name of the viminfo file is wrong.  This could happen when accidentally typing
"vim -i file" when you wanted "vim -R file" (yes, somebody accidentally did
that!).  If you want to overwrite a viminfo file with an error in it, you will
either have to fix the error, or delete the file (while Vim is running, so
most of the information will be restored).

						   :rv :rviminfo E195
:rv[iminfo][!] [file]	Read from viminfo file [file] (default: see
			viminfo-file-name above).
			If [!] is given, then any information that is
			already set (registers, marks, v:oldfiles, etc.)
			will be overwritten

			:wv :wviminfo E137 E138 E574 E886 E929
:wv[iminfo][!] [file]	Write to viminfo file [file] (default: see
			viminfo-file-name above).
			This command has no effect when 'viminfofile' has been
			set to "NONE".
			The information in the file is first read in to make
			a merge between old and new info.  When [!] is used,
			the old information is not read first, only the
			internal info is written.  If 'viminfo' is empty, marks
			for up to 100 files will be written.
			When you get error "E929: Too many viminfo temp files"
			check that no old temp files were left behind (e.g.
			~/.viminf*) and that you can write in the directory of
			the .viminfo file.

						:ol :oldfiles
:ol[dfiles]		List the files that have marks stored in the viminfo
			file.  This list is read on startup and only changes
			afterwards with :rviminfo!.  Also see v:oldfiles.
			The number can be used with c_#<.
			The output can be filtered with :filter, e.g.: 
				filter /\.vim/ oldfiles
			The filtering happens on the file name.
			{only when compiled with the |+eval| feature}

:bro[wse] ol[dfiles][!]
			List file names as with :oldfiles, and then prompt
			for a number.  When the number is valid that file from
			the list is edited.
			If you get the press-enter prompt you can press "q"
			and still get the prompt to enter a file number.
			Use ! to abandon a modified buffer. abandon
			{not when compiled with tiny or small features}

 vim:tw=78:ts=8:noet:ft=help:norl:


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