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various.txt   For Vim version 9.1.  Last change: 2023 Sep 27

		  VIM REFERENCE MANUAL    by Bram Moolenaar

Various commands					various

1. Various commands		various-cmds
2. Using Vim like less or more	less

1. Various commands					various-cmds

CTRL-L			Clear and redraw the screen.  The redraw may happen
			later, after processing typeahead.

							:redr :redraw
:redr[aw][!]		Redraw the screen right now.  When ! is included it is
			cleared first.
			Useful to update the screen halfway executing a script
			or function.  Also when halfway a mapping and
			'lazyredraw' is set.

						:redraws :redrawstatus
:redraws[tatus][!]	Redraw the status line of the current window.  When !
			is included all status lines are redrawn.
			Useful to update the status line(s) when 'statusline'
			includes an item that doesn't cause automatic
			If the command line is being edited the redraw is
			postponed until later.

						:redrawt :redrawtabline
:redrawt[abline]	Redraw the tabline.  Useful to update the tabline when
			'tabline' includes an item that doesn't trigger
			automatic updating.

<Del>			When entering a number: Remove the last digit.
			Note: if you like to use <BS> for this, add this
			mapping to your .vimrc: 
				:map CTRL-V <BS>   CTRL-V <Del>
			See :fixdel if your <Del> key does not do what you

:as[cii]	or					ga :as :ascii
ga			Print the ascii value of the character under the
			cursor in decimal, hexadecimal and octal.
			Mnemonic: Get Ascii value.

			For example, when the cursor is on a 'R':
				<R>  82,  Hex 52,  Octal 122 
			When the character is a non-standard ASCII character,
			but printable according to the 'isprint' option, the
			non-printable version is also given.

			When the character is larger than 127, the <M-x> form
			is also printed.  For example:
				<~A>  <M-^A>  129,  Hex 81,  Octal 201 
				<p>  <|~>  <M-~>  254,  Hex fe,  Octal 376 
			(where <p> is a special character)

			The <Nul> character in a file is stored internally as
			<NL>, but it will be shown as:
				<^@>  0,  Hex 00,  Octal 000 

			If the character has composing characters these are
			also shown.  The value of 'maxcombine' doesn't matter.

			If the character can be inserted as a digraph, also
			output the two characters that can be used to create
			the character:
			    <ö> 246, Hex 00f6, Oct 366, Digr o: 
			This shows you can type CTRL-K o : to insert ö.

g8			Print the hex values of the bytes used in the
			character under the cursor, assuming it is in UTF-8
			encoding.  This also shows composing characters.  The
			value of 'maxcombine' doesn't matter.
			Example of a character with two composing characters:
				e0 b8 81 + e0 b8 b9 + e0 b9 89 

8g8			Find an illegal UTF-8 byte sequence at or after the
			cursor.  This works in two situations:
			1. when 'encoding' is any 8-bit encoding
			2. when 'encoding' is "utf-8" and 'fileencoding' is
			   any 8-bit encoding
			Thus it can be used when editing a file that was
			supposed to be UTF-8 but was read as if it is an 8-bit
			encoding because it contains illegal bytes.
			Does not wrap around the end of the file.
			Note that when the cursor is on an illegal byte or the
			cursor is halfway a multibyte character the command
			won't move the cursor.

						:p :pr :print E749
:[range]p[rint] [flags]
			Print [range] lines (default current line).
			Note: If you are looking for a way to print your text
			on paper see :hardcopy.  In the GUI you can use the
			File.Print menu entry.
			See ex-flags for [flags].
			The :filter command can be used to only show lines
			matching a pattern.

:[range]p[rint] {count} [flags]
			Print {count} lines, starting with [range] (default
			current line cmdline-ranges).
			See ex-flags for [flags].

							:P :Print
:[range]P[rint] [count] [flags]
			Just as ":print".  Was apparently added to Vi for
			people that keep the shift key pressed too long...
			This command is not supported in Vim9 script.
			Note: A user command can overrule this command.
			See ex-flags for [flags].

							:l :list
:[range]l[ist] [count] [flags]
			Same as :print, but display unprintable characters
			with '^' and put $ after the line.  This can be
			further changed with the 'listchars' option.
			See ex-flags for [flags].

							:nu :number
:[range]nu[mber] [count] [flags]
			Same as :print, but precede each line with its line
			number.  (See also 'highlight' and 'numberwidth'
			See ex-flags for [flags].

:[range]# [count] [flags]
			synonym for :number.

:#!{anything}		Ignored, so that you can start a Vim script with: 
				#!vim -S
				echo "this is a Vim script"

							:z E144
:[range]z[+-^.=][count]	Display several lines of text surrounding the line
			specified with [range], or around the current line
			if there is no [range].

			If there is a [count], that's how many lines you'll
			see; if there is no [count] and only one window then
			twice the value of the 'scroll' option is used,
			otherwise the current window height minus 3 is used.
			This is the value of "scr" in the table below.

			If there is a [count] the 'window' option is set to
			its value.

			:z can be used either alone or followed by any of
			several marks.  These have the following effect:

			mark   first line    last line      new cursor line 
			----   ----------    ---------      ------------
			+      current line  1 scr forward  1 scr forward
			-      1 scr back    current line   current line
			^      2 scr back    1 scr back     1 scr back
			.      1/2 scr back  1/2 scr fwd    1/2 scr fwd
			=      1/2 scr back  1/2 scr fwd    current line

			Specifying no mark at all is the same as "+".
			If the mark is "=", a line of dashes is printed
			around the current line.

			Like ":z", but when [count] is not specified, it
			defaults to the Vim window height minus one.

:[range]z[!]#[+-^.=][count]				:z#
			Like ":z" or ":z!", but number the lines.

:= [flags]		Print the last line number.
			See ex-flags for [flags].

:{range}= [flags]	Prints the last line number in {range}.  For example,
			this prints the current line number: 
			See ex-flags for [flags].

:norm[al][!] {commands}					:norm :normal
			Execute Normal mode commands {commands}.  This makes
			it possible to execute Normal mode commands typed on
			the command-line.  {commands} are executed like they
			are typed.  For undo all commands are undone together.
			Execution stops when an error is encountered.

			If the [!] is given, mappings will not be used.
			Without it, when this command is called from a
			non-remappable mapping (:noremap), the argument can
			be mapped anyway.

			{commands} should be a complete command.  If
			{commands} does not finish a command, the last one
			will be aborted as if <Esc> or <C-C> was typed.
			This implies that an insert command must be completed
			(to start Insert mode, see :startinsert).  A ":"
			command must be completed as well.  And you can't use
			"Q" or "gQ" to start Ex mode.

			The display is not updated while ":normal" is busy.

			{commands} cannot start with a space.  Put a count of
			1 (one) before it, "1 " is one space.

			The 'insertmode' option is ignored for {commands}.

			This command cannot be followed by another command,
			since any '|' is considered part of the command.

			This command can be used recursively, but the depth is
			limited by 'maxmapdepth'.

			An alternative is to use :execute, which uses an
			expression as argument.  This allows the use of
			printable characters to represent special characters.

				:exe "normal \<c-w>\<c-w>"

:{range}norm[al][!] {commands}				:normal-range
			Execute Normal mode commands {commands} for each line
			in the {range}.  Before executing the {commands}, the
			cursor is positioned in the first column of the range,
			for each line.  Otherwise it's the same as the
			":normal" command without a range.

							:sh :shell E371
:sh[ell]		This command starts a shell.  When the shell exits
			(after the "exit" command) you return to Vim.  The
			name for the shell command comes from 'shell' option.
			Note: This doesn't work when Vim on the Amiga was
			started in QuickFix mode from a compiler, because the
			compiler will have set stdin to a non-interactive

							:!cmd :!
:!{cmd}			Execute {cmd} with the shell.  See also the 'shell'
			and 'shelltype' option.
			Any '!' in {cmd} is replaced with the previous
			external command (see also 'cpoptions').  But not when
			there is a backslash before the '!', then that
			backslash is removed.  Example: ":!ls" followed by
			":!echo ! \! \\!" executes "echo ls ! \!".

			A '|' in {cmd} is passed to the shell, you cannot use
			it to append a Vim command.  See :bar.

			If {cmd} contains "%" it is expanded to the current
			file name, "#" is expanded to the alternate file name.
			Special characters in the file name are not escaped,
			use quotes to avoid their special meaning: 
				:!ls "%"
			If the file name contains a "$" then single quotes
			might work better, but this only works if the file
			name does not contain a single quote: 
				:!ls '%'
			This should always work, but it's more typing: 
				:exe "!ls " .. shellescape(expand("%"))
			To get a literal "%" or "#" prepend it with a
			backslash.  For example, to list all files starting
			with "%": 
				:!ls \%*

			A newline character ends {cmd}, what follows is
			interpreted as a following ":" command.  However, if
			there is a backslash before the newline it is removed
			and {cmd} continues.  It doesn't matter how many
			backslashes are before the newline, only one is

			On Unix the command normally runs in a non-interactive
			shell.  If you want an interactive shell to be used
			(to use aliases) set 'shellcmdflag' to "-ic".
			For Win32 also see :!start.

			After the command has been executed, the timestamp and
			size of the current file is checked timestamp.

			Vim redraws the screen after the command is finished,
			because it may have printed any text.  This requires a
			hit-enter prompt, so that you can read any messages.
			To avoid this use: 
				:silent !{cmd}
			The screen is not redrawn then, thus you have to use
			CTRL-L or ":redraw!" if the command did display
			something.  However, this depends on what the t_ti
			and t_te termcap entries are set to.
			Also see shell-window.

:!!			Repeat last ":!{cmd}".

							:ve :ver :version
:ve[rsion]		Print the version number of the editor.  If the
			compiler used understands "__DATE__" the compilation
			date is mentioned.  Otherwise a fixed release-date is
			The following lines contain information about which
			features were enabled when Vim was compiled.  When
			there is a preceding '+', the feature is included,
			when there is a '-' it is excluded.  To change this,
			you have to edit feature.h and recompile Vim.
			To check for this in an expression, see has().
			Here is an overview of the features.
			The first column shows the smallest version in which
			they are included:
			   T	tiny (always)
			   N	normal
			   H	huge
			   m	manually enabled or depends on other features
			   -    never, feature was removed
			 (none) system dependent
			Thus if a feature is marked with "N", it is included
			in the normal and huge versions of Vim.

   +acl  		ACL support included
   +ARP  		Amiga only: ARP support included
H  +arabic  		Arabic language support
N  +autochdir  		support 'autochdir' option
T  +autocmd  		:autocmd, automatic commands.  Always enabled since
H  +autoservername  	Automatically enable clientserver
m  +balloon_eval  	balloon-eval support in the GUI. Included when
			compiling with supported GUI (Motif, GTK, GUI) and
			either Netbeans/Sun Workshop integration or +eval
H  +balloon_eval_term  	balloon-eval support in the terminal,
N  +browse  		:browse command
T  ++builtin_terms  	maximal terminals builtin builtin-terms Always
			enabled since 9.0.0280
N  +byte_offset  	support for 'o' flag in 'statusline' option, "go"
			and ":goto" commands.
m  +channel  		inter process communication channel
T  +cindent  		'cindent', C indenting; Always enabled
N  +clientserver  	Unix and Win32: Remote invocation clientserver
   +clipboard  		clipboard support compiled-in
   +clipboard_working  	clipboard support compiled-in and working
T  +cmdline_compl  	command line completion cmdline-completion
T  +cmdline_hist  	command line history cmdline-history
T  +cmdline_info  	'showcmd' and 'ruler'; Always enabled since
T  +cmdwin  		cmdline-window support; Always enabled since 9.0.0657
T  +comments  		'comments' support
N  +conceal  		"conceal" support, see conceal :syn-conceal etc.
N  +cryptv  		encryption support encryption
H  +cscope  		cscope support
T  +cursorbind  	'cursorbind' support
m  +cursorshape  	termcap-cursor-shape support
m  +debug  		Compiled for debugging.
N  +dialog_gui  	Support for :confirm with GUI dialog.
N  +dialog_con  	Support for :confirm with console dialog.
N  +dialog_con_gui  	Support for :confirm with GUI and console dialog.
N  +diff  		vimdiff and 'diff'
N  +digraphs  		digraphs E196
   +directx  		Win32 GUI only: DirectX and 'renderoptions'
   +dnd  		Support for DnD into the "~ register quote_~.
H  +emacs_tags  	emacs-tags files
N  +eval  		expression evaluation eval.txt
T  +ex_extra  		always on now, used to be for Vim's extra Ex commands
N  +extra_search  	'hlsearch' and 'incsearch' options.
-  +farsi  		Removed: farsi language
T  +file_in_path  	gf, CTRL-W_f and <cfile>  Always enabled since
N  +find_in_path  	include file searches: [I, :isearch,
			CTRL-W_CTRL-I, :checkpath, etc.
N  +folding  		folding
   +footer  		gui-footer
   +fork  		Unix only: fork shell commands
T  +float  		Floating point support  Always enabled since 9.0.0491
N  +gettext  		message translations multi-lang
-  +GUI_Athena  	Unix only: Athena GUI
   +GUI_neXtaw  	Unix only: neXtaw GUI
   +GUI_GTK  		Unix only: GTK+ GUI
   +GUI_Motif  		Unix only: Motif GUI
   +GUI_Photon  	QNX only:  Photon GUI
m  +hangul_input  	Hangul input support hangul
   +iconv  		Compiled with the iconv() function
   +iconv/dyn  		Likewise iconv-dynamic /dyn
T  +insert_expand  	insert_expand Insert mode completion
m  +ipv6  		Support for IPv6 networking channel
m  +job  		starting and stopping jobs job
T  +jumplist  		jumplist; Always enabled since 8.2.3795
H  +keymap  		'keymap'
N  +lambda  		lambda and closure
H  +langmap  		'langmap'
N  +libcall  		libcall()
N  +linebreak  		'linebreak', 'breakat' and 'showbreak'
T  +lispindent  	'lisp'
T  +listcmds  		Vim commands for the list of buffers buffer-hidden
			and argument list :argdelete
T  +localmap  		Support for mappings local to a buffer :map-local
m  +lua  		Lua interface
m  +lua/dyn  		Lua interface /dyn
N  +menu  		:menu
N  +mksession  		:mksession
T  +modify_fname  	filename-modifiers
T  +mouse  		Mouse handling mouse-using
N  +mouseshape  	'mouseshape'
N  +mouse_dec  		Unix only: Dec terminal mouse handling dec-mouse
N  +mouse_gpm  		Unix only: Linux console mouse handling gpm-mouse
m  +mouse_gpm/dyn  	Same as +mouse_gpm with optional library dependency
N  +mouse_jsbterm  	JSB mouse handling jsbterm-mouse
N  +mouse_netterm  	Unix only: netterm mouse handling netterm-mouse
N  +mouse_pterm  	QNX only: pterm mouse handling qnx-terminal
N  +mouse_sysmouse  	Unix only: *BSD console mouse handling sysmouse
N  +mouse_sgr  		Unix only: sgr mouse handling sgr-mouse
N  +mouse_urxvt  	Unix only: urxvt mouse handling urxvt-mouse
N  +mouse_xterm  	Unix only: xterm mouse handling xterm-mouse
T  +multi_byte  	Unicode support, 16 and 32 bit characters multibyte
   +multi_byte_ime  	Win32 input method for multibyte chars multibyte-ime
N  +multi_lang  	non-English language support multi-lang
m  +mzscheme  		Mzscheme interface mzscheme
m  +mzscheme/dyn  	Mzscheme interface mzscheme-dynamic /dyn
m  +netbeans_intg  	netbeans
T  +num64  		64-bit Number support Number
			Always enabled since 8.2.0271, use v:numbersize to
			check the actual size of a Number.
m  +ole  		Win32 GUI only: ole-interface
N  +packages  		Loading packages
T  +path_extra  	Up/downwards search in 'path' and 'tags'  Always
			enabled since 9.0.0270
m  +perl  		Perl interface perl
m  +perl/dyn  		Perl interface perl-dynamic /dyn
N  +persistent_undo  	Persistent undo undo-persistence
N  +popupwin  		Popup windows popup-window
   +postscript  	:hardcopy writes a PostScript file
N  +printer  		:hardcopy command
H  +profile  		:profile command
m  +python  		Python 2 interface python
m  +python/dyn  	Python 2 interface python-dynamic /dyn
m  +python3  		Python 3 interface python
m  +python3/dyn  	Python 3 interface python-dynamic /dyn
m  +python3/dyn-stable
			Python 3 interface python-dynamic python-stable
N  +quickfix  		:make and quickfix commands
N  +reltime  		reltime() function, 'hlsearch'/'incsearch' timeout,
			'redrawtime' option
H  +rightleft  		Right to left typing 'rightleft'
m  +ruby  		Ruby interface ruby
m  +ruby/dyn  		Ruby interface ruby-dynamic /dyn
T  +scrollbind  	'scrollbind'
N  +signs  		:sign
T  +smartindent  	'smartindent'
H  +sodium  		compiled with libsodium for better encryption support
H  +sound  		sound_playevent(), sound_playfile() functions, etc.
N  +spell  		spell checking support, see spell
N  +startuptime  	--startuptime argument
N  +statusline  	Options 'statusline', 'rulerformat' and special
			formats of 'titlestring' and 'iconstring'
-  +sun_workshop  	Removed: workshop
N  +syntax  		Syntax highlighting syntax
   +system()  		Unix only: opposite of +fork
T  +tag_binary  	binary searching in tags file tag-binary-search
-  +tag_old_static  	Removed; method for static tags tag-old-static
-  +tag_any_white  	Removed; was to allow any white space in tags files
m  +tcl  		Tcl interface tcl
m  +tcl/dyn  		Tcl interface tcl-dynamic /dyn
m  +terminal  		Support for terminal window terminal
   +terminfo  		uses terminfo instead of termcap
N  +termresponse  	support for t_RV and v:termresponse
N  +termguicolors  	24-bit color in xterm-compatible terminals support
T  +textobjects  	text-objects selection. Always enabled since 9.0.0222.
N  +textprop  		text-properties
   +tgetent  		non-Unix only: able to use external termcap
N  +timers  		the timer_start() function
T  +title  		Setting the window 'title' and 'icon'; Always enabled
N  +toolbar  		gui-toolbar
T  +user_commands  	User-defined commands. user-commands
			Always enabled since 8.1.1210.
H  +vartabs  		Variable-width tabstops. 'vartabstop'
T  +vertsplit  		Vertically split windows :vsplit; Always enabled
			since 8.0.1118.
T  +vim9script  	Vim9 script
N  +viminfo  		'viminfo'
T  +virtualedit  	'virtualedit' Always enabled since 8.1.826.
T  +visual  		Visual mode Visual-mode Always enabled since 7.4.200.
T  +visualextra  	extra Visual mode commands blockwise-operators
T  +vreplace  		gR and gr
   +vtp  		on MS-Windows console: support for 'termguicolors'
T  +wildignore  	'wildignore'  Always enabled since 9.0.0278
T  +wildmenu  		'wildmenu'  Always enabled since 9.0.0279
T  +windows  		more than one window; Always enabled since 8.0.1118.
m  +writebackup  	'writebackup' is default on
m  +xim  		X input method xim
   +xfontset  		X fontset support xfontset
N  +xattr  		compiled with extended attribute support (Linux only)
   +xpm  		pixmap support
m  +xpm_w32  		Win32 GUI only: pixmap support w32-xpm-support
   +xsmp  		XSMP (X session management) support
   +xsmp_interact  	interactive XSMP (X session management) support
N  +xterm_clipboard  	Unix only: xterm clipboard handling
m  +xterm_save  	save and restore xterm screen xterm-screens
N  +X11  		Unix only: can restore window title X11

							/dyn E370 E448
			To some of the features "/dyn" is added when the
			feature is only available when the related library can
			be dynamically loaded.

:ve[rsion] {nr}		Is now ignored.  This was previously used to check the
			version number of a .vimrc file.  It was removed,
			because you can now use the ":if" command for
			version-dependent behavior.

							:redi :redir
:redi[r][!] > {file}	Redirect messages to file {file}.  The messages which
			are the output of commands are written to that file,
			until redirection ends.  The messages are also still
			shown on the screen.  When [!] is included, an
			existing file is overwritten.  When [!] is omitted,
			and {file} exists, this command fails.

			Only one ":redir" can be active at a time.  Calls to
			":redir" will close any active redirection before
			starting redirection to the new target.  For recursive
			use check out execute().

			To stop the messages and commands from being echoed to
			the screen, put the commands in a function and call it
			with ":silent call Function()".
			An alternative is to use the 'verbosefile' option,
			this can be used in combination with ":redir".

:redi[r] >> {file}	Redirect messages to file {file}.  Append if {file}
			already exists.

:redi[r] @{a-zA-Z}
:redi[r] @{a-zA-Z}>	Redirect messages to register {a-z}.  Append to the
			contents of the register if its name is given
			uppercase {A-Z}.  The ">" after the register name is
:redi[r] @{a-z}>>	Append messages to register {a-z}.

:redi[r] @*>
:redi[r] @+>		Redirect messages to the selection or clipboard. For
			backward compatibility, the ">" after the register
			name can be omitted. See quotestar and quoteplus.
:redi[r] @*>>
:redi[r] @+>>		Append messages to the selection or clipboard.

:redi[r] @">		Redirect messages to the unnamed register. For
			backward compatibility, the ">" after the register
			name can be omitted.
:redi[r] @">>		Append messages to the unnamed register.
:redi[r] => {var}	Redirect messages to a variable.
			In legacy script: If the variable doesn't exist, then
			it is created.  If the variable exists, then it is
			initialized to an empty string.  After the redirection
			starts, if the variable is removed or locked or the
			variable type is changed, then further command output
			messages will cause errors.  When using a local
			variable (l:var in a function or s:var in a script)
			and another :redir causes the current one to end,
			the scope might be different and the assignment fails.
			In Vim9 script: the variable must have been declared
			as a string.
			The variable will remain empty until redirection ends.
			Only string variables can be used.
			To get the output of one command the execute()
			function can be used instead of redirection.

:redi[r] =>> {var}	Append messages to an existing variable.  Only string
			variables can be used.
:redi[r] END		End redirecting messages.

							:filt :filter
:filt[er][!] {pattern} {command}
:filt[er][!] /{pattern}/ {command}
			Restrict the output of {command} to lines matching
			with {pattern}.  For example, to list only xml files: 
				:filter /\.xml$/ oldfiles
			If the [!] is given, restrict the output of {command}
			to lines that do NOT match {pattern}.

			{pattern} is a Vim search pattern.  Instead of enclosing
			it in / any non-ID character (see 'isident') can be
			used, so long as it does not appear in {pattern}.
			Without the enclosing character the pattern cannot
			include the bar character. 'ignorecase' is not used.

			The pattern is matched against the relevant part of
			the output, not necessarily the whole line. Only some
			commands support filtering, try it out to check if it
			works. Some of the commands that support filtering:
			   :#          - filter whole line
			   :clist      - filter by file name or module name
			   :command    - filter by command name
			   :files      - filter by file name
			   :highlight  - filter by highlight group
			   :jumps      - filter by file name
			   :let        - filter by variable name
			   :list       - filter whole line
			   :llist      - filter by file name or module name
			   :marks      - filter by text in the current file,
					   or file name for other files
			   :oldfiles   - filter by file name
			   :registers  - filter by register contents
					   (does not work multi-line)
			   :set        - filter by option name

			Only normal messages are filtered, error messages are

						:sil :silent :silent!
:sil[ent][!] {command}	Execute {command} silently.  Normal messages will not
			be given or added to the message history.
			When [!] is added, error messages will also be
			skipped, and commands and mappings will not be aborted
			when an error is detected.  v:errmsg is still set.
			When [!] is not used, an error message will cause
			further messages to be displayed normally.
			Redirection, started with :redir, will continue as
			usual, although there might be small differences.
			This will allow redirecting the output of a command
			without seeing it on the screen.  Example: 
			    :redir >/tmp/foobar
			    :silent g/Aap/p
			    :redir END
			To execute a Normal mode command silently, use the
			:normal command.  For example, to search for a
			string without messages: 
			    :silent exe "normal /path\<CR>"
			":silent!" is useful to execute a command that may
			fail, but the failure is to be ignored.  Example: 
			    :let v:errmsg = ""
			    :silent! /^begin
			    :if v:errmsg != ""
			    : ... pattern was not found
			":silent" will also avoid the hit-enter prompt.  When
			using this for an external command, this may cause the
			screen to be messed up.  Use CTRL-L to clean it up
			":silent menu ..." defines a menu that will not echo a
			Command-line command.  The command will still produce
			messages though.  Use ":silent" in the command itself
			to avoid that: ":silent menu .... :silent command".

						:uns :unsilent
:uns[ilent] {command}	Execute {command} not silently.  Only makes a
			difference when :silent was used to get to this
			Use this for giving a message even when :silent was
			used.  In this example :silent is used to avoid the
			message about reading the file and :unsilent to be
			able to list the first line of each file. 
		:silent argdo unsilent echo expand('%') .. ": " .. getline(1)

						:verb :verbose
:[count]verb[ose] {command}
			Execute {command} with 'verbose' set to [count].  If
			[count] is omitted one is used. ":0verbose" can be
			used to set 'verbose' to zero.
			The additional use of ":silent" makes messages
			generated but not displayed.
			The combination of ":silent" and ":verbose" can be
			used to generate messages and check them with
			v:statusmsg and friends.  For example: 
				:let v:statusmsg = ""
				:silent verbose runtime foobar.vim
				:if v:statusmsg != ""
				:  " foobar.vim could not be found
			When concatenating another command, the ":verbose"
			only applies to the first one: 
				:4verbose set verbose | set verbose
			For logging verbose messages in a file use the
			'verbosefile' option.

When 'verbose' is non-zero, listing the value of a Vim option or a key map or
an abbreviation or a user-defined function or a command or a highlight group
or an autocommand will also display where it was last defined.  If it was
defined manually then there will be no "Last set" message.  When it was
defined while executing a function, user command or autocommand, the script in
which it was defined is reported.
{not available when compiled without the |+eval| feature}

K			Run a program to lookup the keyword under the
			cursor.  The name of the program is given with the
			'keywordprg' (kp) option (default is "man").  The
			keyword is formed of letters, numbers and the
			characters in 'iskeyword'.  The keyword under or
			right of the cursor is used.  The same can be done
			with the command 
				:!{program} {keyword}
			There is an example of a program to use in the tools
			directory of Vim.  It is called "ref" and does a
			simple spelling check.
			Special cases:
			- If 'keywordprg' begins with ":" it is invoked as
			  a Vim Ex command with [count].
			- If 'keywordprg' is empty, the ":help" command is
			  used.  It's a good idea to include more characters
			  in 'iskeyword' then, to be able to find more help.
			- When 'keywordprg' is equal to "man" or starts with
			  ":", a [count] before "K" is inserted after
			  keywordprg and before the keyword.  For example,
			  using "2K" while the cursor is on "mkdir", results
				!man 2 mkdir
			- When 'keywordprg' is equal to "man -s", a count
			  before "K" is inserted after the "-s".  If there is
			  no count, the "-s" is removed.

{Visual}K		Like "K", but use the visually highlighted text for
			the keyword.  Only works when the highlighted text is
			not more than one line.

[N]gs							gs :sl :sleep
:[N]sl[eep] [N][m]	Do nothing for [N] seconds.  When [m] is included,
			sleep for [N] milliseconds.  The count for "gs" always
			uses seconds.  The default is one second. 
			     :sleep	     "sleep for one second
			     :5sleep	     "sleep for five seconds
			     :sleep 100m     "sleep for 100 milliseconds
			     10gs	     "sleep for ten seconds
			Can be interrupted with CTRL-C (CTRL-Break on
			MS-Windows).  "gs" stands for "goto sleep".
			While sleeping the cursor is positioned in the text,
			if at a visible position.
			Also process the received netbeans messages. {only
			available when compiled with the +netbeans_intg

							:sl! :sleep!
:[N]sl[eep]! [N][m]	Same as above, but hide the cursor.

							:xrestore :xr
:xr[estore] [display]	Reinitializes the connection to the X11 server. Useful
			after the X server restarts, e.g. when running Vim for
			long time inside screen/tmux and connecting from
			different machines.
			[display] should be in the format of the $DISPLAY
			environment variable (e.g. "localhost:10.0")
			If [display] is	omitted, then it reinitializes the
			connection to the X11 server using the same value as
			was used for the previous execution of this command.
			If the value was never specified, then it uses the
			value of $DISPLAY environment variable as it was when
			Vim was started.
			{only available when compiled with the +clipboard

g CTRL-A		Only when Vim was compiled with MEM_PROFILING defined
			(which is very rare): print memory usage statistics.
			Only useful for debugging Vim.
			For incrementing in Visual mode see v_g_CTRL-A.

2. Using Vim like less or more					less

If you use the less or more program to view a file, you don't get syntax
highlighting.  Thus you would like to use Vim instead.  You can do this by
using the shell script "$VIMRUNTIME/macros/less.sh".

This shell script uses the Vim script "$VIMRUNTIME/macros/less.vim".  It sets
up mappings to simulate the commands that less supports.  Otherwise, you can
still use the Vim commands.

This isn't perfect.  For example, when viewing a short file Vim will still use
the whole screen.  But it works well enough for most uses, and you get syntax

The "h" key will give you a short overview of the available commands.

If you want to set options differently when using less, define the
LessInitFunc in your vimrc, for example: 

	func LessInitFunc()
	  set nocursorcolumn nocursorline


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